Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 9,Issue 8,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Zika: As an emergent epidemic
    Braira Wahid Amjad Ali Shazia Rafique Muhammad Idrees
    2016, 9(8):701-708. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.019
    [Abstract](65) [HTML](0) [PDF 710.81 K](282)
    Zika virus is a new global threat for 2016 that has been swept to almost all Americas and is now posing serious threats to the entire globe. This deadly virus is playing havoc to unborn lives because of its reported association with upsurge of fetal deformation called microcephaly and neuropathic disorders including Guillain-Barré syndrome. Till today, there is no vaccine prospect, antiviral therapy or licensed medical countermeasures to curb the teratogenic outcomes of this destructive viral infection. Diagnosis, treatment, chronicity and pathogenesis are still vague and unsettled. Therefore, this review article addresses all the aspects related to this disease to mitigate the explosive rise in Zika virus infection.
    2  Toxoplasmosis and anti-Toxoplasma effects of medicinal plant extracts-A mini-review
    Ibrahim Al Nasr,?,Faiyaz Ahmed Fawaz Pullishery Saeed El-Ashram Vardharajula Venkata Ramaiah
    2016, 9(8):709-713. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.012
    [Abstract](67) [HTML](0) [PDF 625.94 K](299)
    Toxoplasmosis is a globally diwstributed parasitic protozoan disease, caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The infection can result in more severe symptoms with potentially life-threatening in case of immunocompromised individuals. Sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine are the two drugs used as a part of standard therapy for toxoplasmosis. Researchers have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of medicinal plants for toxoplasmosis, which can be used as an alternative to standard drug therapy with reduced side effects. Traditional herbal plants are used by people to cure a large number of parasitic disorders. This review provides new insights into various medicinal plants that are used traditionally for the treatment of toxoplasmosis and other parasitic infections, which can be useful as an alternative treatment option for Toxoplasma gondii infections.
    3  Unlocking the in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of halophyte plants from the southern Portugal
    Marta Oliveira Policarpo Ademar Sales Junior Maria Jo?o Rodrigues Marina DellaGreca Luísa Barreira Silvane Maria Fonseca Murta Alvaro José Romanha Luísa Custódio
    2016, 9(8):714-719. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.015
    [Abstract](198) [HTML](0) [PDF 679.23 K](433)
    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) activity of organic extracts prepared from halophyte species collected in the southern coast of Portugal (Algarve), and chemically characterize the most active samples. Methods: Acetone, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were prepared from 31 halophyte species and tested in vitro against trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of the Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi. The most active extract was fractionated by preparative HPLC-DAD, affording 11 fractions. The most selective fraction was fully characterized by 1H-NMR. Results: From 94 samples tested, one was active, namely the root dichloromethane extract of Juncus acutus (IC50 < 20 μg/mL). This extract was fractionated by HPLC, affording 11 fractions, one of them containing only a pure compound (juncunol), and tested for anti-parasitic activity. Fraction 8 (IC50 = 4.1 μg/mL) was the most active, and was further characterized by 1H-NMR. The major compounds were phenanthrenes, 9,10dihydrophenanthrenes and benzocoumarins. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the compounds identified in fraction 8 are likely responsible for the observed anti parasitic activity. Further research is in progress aiming to isolate and identify the specific active molecules. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the in vitro anti T. cruzi activity of halophyte species.
    4  Development and application of quantitative detection method for nervous necrosis virus (NNV) isolated from sevenband grouper Hyporthodus septemfasciatus
    Jong-Oh Kim Jae-Ok Kim Wi-Sik Kim Myung-Joo Oh
    2016, 9(8):720-726. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.014
    [Abstract](116) [HTML](0) [PDF 835.48 K](334)
    Objective: To develop the rapid and efficient quantitative detection tool for nervous necrosis virus isolated from sevenband grouper Hyporhodus septemfasciatus. Methods: The viral genes of the NNV (SGYeosu08) isolated from sevenband grouper were phylogenetically analyzed. In addition, novel quantitative PCR primers based on the genomic sequence of SGYeosu08 isolate were designed and compared it with the conventional bio-assay method (TCID50) using in vitro and in vivo samples. Results: The phylogenetic analysis of viral genes demonstrated the relationship of SGYeosu08 with members of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). The qNNV_R1 primer set (R1_F and R1_R) and the qNNV_R2 primer set (R2_ F and R2_R) revealed 93% primer efficiency (regression: y=-0.2861x + 9.9401, R2= 0.9976) and the revealed 108% primer efficiency (regression: y=-0.3172x + 10.0611, R2= 0.9982), respectively. Its comparison with viral infectivity calculated by TCID50 method showed similar kinetic pattern at in vitro and NNV challenged fish (in vivo) samples. Conclusions: Result show that this method is rapid and efficient to diagnose NNV infection compare to traditional bioassay method (TCID50).
    5  In vitro anti-hydatic and immunomodulatory effects of ginger and [6]gingerol
    Manel Amri Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
    2016, 9(8):727-734. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.013
    [Abstract](151) [HTML](0) [PDF 913.66 K](418)
    Objective: To study in vitro anti-hydatic and immunomodulatory effects of ginger and [6]gingerol as an alternative therapy for Cystic echinococcosis. Methods: Effect of a commonly used herbal product and ginger (Zingiber officinale) towards protoscoleces (PSC) and cyst wall in vitro was studied. The effect of [6]-gingerol, and the pungent constituent of ginger, was also evaluated on PSC culture. Furthermore, the activity of both extracts in association with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) on PSC co-cultured with mononuclear cells of hydatic patients was evaluated. The nitric oxide (NO) production was measured in each co-culture. Results: Ginger exhibited a concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect against PSC and cyst wall. Interestingly, ginger was more effective than the [6]-gingerol. Moreover, additional parasitic effect between extracts and IFN-γ are also observed in co-cultures. Furthermore, both extracts attenuated the NO production elicited by this infection or by the IFN-γ. Conclusions: Ginger has an important anti-hydatic effect in vitro. This effect is amplified in the presence of IFN-γ. Moreover, this herbal product may protect against host’s cell death by reducing the high levels of NO. Ginger may act, at least, through the [6]-gingerol. All our data suggest the promising use of ginger in the treatment of Echinococcus granulosus infection.
    6  Insight of ZnS nanoparticles contribution in different biological uses
    Houcine Labiadh?,Karima Lahbib Slah Hidouri Soufiane Touil Tahar BEN Chaabane
    2016, 9(8):735-740. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.008
    [Abstract](110) [HTML](0) [PDF 780.86 K](264)
    Objective: To evaluate the contributions of the some quantum dots in different biological uses in order to valorizes such nanomaterials for further applications. Methods: Zinc sulfide ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous medium at pH constant, the obtained nanoparticles has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopies. Zinc sulfide nanoparticles were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal profiling and tested for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, ferric reducing power (FRP) assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) methods. Results: The sizes of the crystallites were estimated to 3 nm using the Debye-Scherrer formula based on the XRD data. The shape was identified to be quasi-spherical whith agglomerated particles. The obtained ZnS quantum dots present an antioxidant activity especially in oxido-reduction power, and can be used for species profiling either for bacteria and fungus. Conclusion: It was found that ZnS nanoparticles showed relatively higher antioxidant activities and antibacterial with an antifungal behavior which proves that this nanomaterials can react at the interface with the life entities.
    7  Chemical composition, antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from aromatic plants growing in Sudan
    Sakina Yagi Randa Babiker Tzvetomira Tzanova Herve Schohn
    2016, 9(8):741-748. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.009
    [Abstract](97) [HTML](0) [PDF 680.30 K](277)
    Objective: To explore the potential of essential oil, as therapeutic molecule source, from olibanum of Boswellia papyrifera (Burseraceae), leafy stems of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (Poaceae) and Croton zambesicus (Euphorbiaceae) and rhizome of Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) found in Sudan. Respective essential oil was evaluated for anti-proliferative, antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Methods: Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and then analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). Anti-proliferative activity was determined against human cell lines (MCF7 and MDAMB231, HT29 and HCT116) by the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) procedure. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by diphenyl 2 pycril hydrazil (DPPH) assay. Antibacterial activity was determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by microdilution method. Results: The essential oil from olibanum of Boswellia papyrifera contained mainly alcohol and ester derivatives (46.82%) while monoterpenes (69.84%) dominated in Corton zambesicus oil. Sesquiterpenes were the most highly represented classes of terpene derivatives in Cyperus schoenanthus (71.59%) and Cyperus rotundus (44.26%). Oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus revealed the best anti-proliferative activity against HCT116 cell line with IC50 value at (19.1 ± 2.0) μg/mL. Oil of Croton zambesicus showed the best antioxidant activity [EC50 (4.20 ± 0.19) mg/mL]. All oils showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value ranged from 16 to 250 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results suggest that the essential oils of these plants could be used as a source of natural anti-proliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial agents.
    8  Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infection in Messalata Central Hospital, Libya
    Mahmoud A. Mohammed Tarig MS Alnour Osama M. Shakurfo Mariam M. Aburass
    2016, 9(8):749-754. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.011
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 655.73 K](306)
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of urinary tract infection among patients at Messalata Central Hospital, Libya, to identify the causative bacteria, and to explore their resistance pattern to antimicrobials. Methods: A total number of 1 153 urine samples were collected from patients, who attended daily to Messalata Central Hospital, Libya, in a study extended for one year. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and isolates typing were done using Phoenix BD (BD diagnostic). Resistance was confirmed manually using agar disk diffusion method. Results: Of the 1 153 urine samples tested, 160 (13.9%) samples were positive, from which 17 different, solely Gram negative, uropathogens were identified. Escherichia coli were the most prevalent (55.6%) bacteria, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies pneumoniae (16.3%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.6%), Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca (2.5%, each), Citrobacter koseri and Providencia rettgeri (1.9%, each), Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus vulgaris (1.3%, each), and Aeromonas caviae, Citrobacter freundii, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter amnigenus biogroup 2, Pseudomonas putida and Serratia marcescens (0.6%, each). The isolated uropathogens showed increased levels of resistance ranged from 10.5% to 64.5%, with an overall resistance of 28.9%. Amikacin was the most effective antimicrobial followed by Imipenem and Meropenem (0%, 0.6% and 2.5% resistance, respectively); while, Cephalothin and Ampicillin were the least (80.6% and 90.0% resistance, respectively) effective. Conclusions: The obtained results emphasized the emergence of highly resistant bacteria to most of tested antimicrobials and raise the alarm for physicians to change their treatment pattern depending on antimicrobial susceptibility results.
    9  Cloning identification and functional analysis of human IL-17A promoter
    Ming-Jie Hu#,Shou-Wei Wu#,Mei-Li Wei Jun Xi Lu Wang Yu-Ze Han Bi-Kui Tang Qiang Fang Li Xu
    2016, 9(8):755-758. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.007
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 613.14 K](233)
    Objective: To conduct the cloning identification and characterization of the sequence of human IL-17A promoter so as to analyze the regulatory mechanism of the gene expression of IL-17. Methods: First of all, the potential promoter region of IL-17A was found by means of the bioinformatics methods. Then, it was cloned into the reporter vector with PCR technique. Finally, the activity of the test promoter was determined by dual luciferase reporter system. Results: Two transcriptional start points of the upper region, 600 bp and 1000 bp, of IL17A were obtained by PCR clone and proved to have certain activities by dual luciferase reporter system. Also, they could be activated by IL-17A activator STAT3, which could start the expression of the reported gene. Conclusions: Clone established the regulatory region of human IL-17A promoter, which provided bases to the subsequent function research.
    10  Expression of RUNX2 and MDM21 in rats with periodontitis under chronic intermittent hypoxia
    Kun Li Su-Ge Dong Hua-Xiang Zhang Shu Zhou Li Ma Qiong-Qiong Yu Zhi-Yong Jiang Qiang-Fu Hu Dan Zhou
    2016, 9(8):759-763. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.002
    [Abstract](62) [HTML](0) [PDF 659.46 K](240)
    Objective: To discuss the expression of RUNX2 and MDM21 in rats with periodontitis under the chronic intermittent hypoxia. Methods: A total of 32 SD healthy rats were randomly divided into four groups, with 8 rats in each group. The molecular biological techniques of immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blotting were employed to detect the effect of different hypoxia time (0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h) and different concentrations of hypoxia (0.000, 0.001, 0.010, 0.060 and 0.100 ppm) on the expression of RUNX2 and MDM21 in rats of four groups. Results: The expression of RUNX2 and MDM21 in each group was significantly higher than the one at other concentrations when the concentration was 0.010 ppm, with the statistical difference (P<0.05). The expression of RUNX2 and MDM21 was that normoxic control group > periodontitis group> chronic intermittent hypoxia group > compound group under the action with the concentration of 0.010 ppm for 12 h, but there was no significant difference for the comparison among groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: The condition of chronic intermittent hypoxia can reduce the expression of RUNX2 and MDM21 in rats with periodontitis and aggravate the damage of periodontal bone.
    11  Role of intestinal flora imbalance in pathogenesis of pouchitis
    Xiao-Bo Feng Jun Jiang Min Li Gang Wang Jin-Wei You Jian Zuo
    2016, 9(8):764-768. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.003
    [Abstract](51) [HTML](0) [PDF 256.04 K](261)
    Objective: To discuss the role of intestinal flora imbalance in the pathogenesis of pouchitis. Methods: The puochitis rat model was established and the faeces sample and the mucous membrane sample were collected regularly, in which the bacterial nucleic acids were extracted for quantitative analysis of the intestinal flora in the samples through using the real-time quantitative PCR technique and high energy sequencing technology. Results: The disorder phenomenon of the intestinal flora appeared at the 7th day of the experiment, and the pouchitis was presented at the 21th day of the experiment. At the 31th day of the experiment, compared to control group and non-pouchitis group, the quantity of Bifidobacterium and the Lactobacillus of the pouchitis model rats in the mucous membrane sample and the faeces sample were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the Bacteroidetes, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and XIV Clostridium leptum subgroup in the mucous membrane of pouchitis were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The IV Clostridium coccoides group was the main flora in the mucous membrane of pouchitis, the bacterial diversity of non-puochitis group and control group was significantly higher than that of the puochitis group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The intestinal flora imbalance is one of the factors that cause the incidence of the pouhitis; this study provides a clue of the pathogenesis and treatment direction of the intestinal inflammatory disease.
    12  Effects of rhBNP after PCI on non-invasive hemodynamic in acute myocardial infarction patients with left heart failure
    Xi-Min He Lin Chen Jiang-Bin Luo Xu-Xia Feng Yun-Bo Zhang Qi-Jing Chen Xiao-Li Ji Tian-Song Wang
    2016, 9(8):769-773. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.006
    [Abstract](91) [HTML](0) [PDF 670.97 K](276)
    Objective: To investigate the effects of exogenous recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on non-invasive hemodynamic in acute myocardial infarction patients with left ventricular failure. Methods: A number of 96 acute myocardial infarction patients accompanied with heart failure after PCI hospitalized in the People’s Hospital of Sanya during February 2012 to October 2015 were selected. They were randomly divided into the therapy group (n = 50) and control group (n = 46). On the basis of routine treatment, patients in the therapy group were treated with intravenous rhBNP (1.5 μg/kg was intravenous injection with uniform speed of 3 min, followed by continuous infusion 0.007 5 μg/kg?min for 72 h), while the control group received conventional treatment. BioZ-2011 non-invasive hemodynamic real-time monitoring system was used to monitor the hemodynamic parameters changes and the leves of plasma pro-BNP, serum creatinine, serum potassium, serum sodium and urine volume of each group before and after treating for 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h. Results: Patients in the therapy group showed no effect on heart rate, while after 30 min of intravenous injection of rhBNP, CO, CI, SV, and SI increased significantly and LVET and TFC reduced at the same time, which had certain effect on blood pressure (SBP/DBP). Compared with the control group, the therapy group showed a faster and more effective improvement on haemodynamics. Conclusions: Acute myocardial infarction patients complicated with left heart failure after primary PCI can significantly improve hemodynamics by treating with rhBNP.
    13  Effect of hGC-MSCs from human gastric cancer tissue on cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor tissue of gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice
    Lin Song Xin Zhou Hong-Jun Jia Mei Du Jin-Ling Zhang Liang Li
    2016, 9(8):774-778. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.004
    [Abstract](79) [HTML](0) [PDF 616.95 K](241)
    Objective: To study the effect of hGC-MSCs from human gastric cancer tissue on cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor tissue of gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice. Methods: BABL/c nude mice were selected as experimental animals and gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice model were established by subcutaneous injection of gastric cancer cells, randomly divided into different intervention groups. hGC-MSCs group was given different amounts of gastric cancer cells for subcutaneous injection, PBS group was given equal volume of PBS for subcutaneous injection. Then tumor tissue volume were determined, tumor-bearing mice were killed and tumor tissues were collected, mRNA expression of proliferation, invasion, EMT related molecules were determined. Results: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 d after intervention, tumor tissue volume of hGC-MSCs group were significantly higher than those of PBS group and the more the number of hGC-MSCs, the higher the tumor tissue volume; mRNA contents of Ki-67, PCNA, Bcl-2, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, MMP-14, N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail and Twist in tumor tissue of hGC-MSCs group were higher than those of PBS group, and mRNA contents of Bax, TIMP1, TIMP2 and E-cadherin were lower than those of PBS group. Conclusions: hGC-MSCs from human gastric cancer tissue can promote the tumor growth in gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice, and the molecular mechanism includes promoting cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
    14  Study on the influence of curcumin on chemosensitivity of nephroblastoma cells
    Xiao-Yong Li Yuan-Yuan Feng Wei Dan Deng Pan Guo-Feng Zhang Xian-Liang Wang Guang-Jun Hou
    2016, 9(8):779-782. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.005
    [Abstract](48) [HTML](0) [PDF 614.96 K](246)
    Objective: To study the influence of curcumin on chemosensitivity of nephroblastoma cells. Methods: Human nephroblastoma cells line SK-NEP-1 was transplanted to the nude mice subcutaneously to establish the implantation tumor model of human nephroblastoma cells. A total of 30 tumor-bearing mice were divided into three groups of ten randomly. The routine chemotherapy group was given vincristine (0.05 mg/mL0.2 mL/d) and actinomycin D (15 ng/ mL0.2 mL/d) combined chemotherapy regime. The curcumin chemotherapy group was given the same combined chemotherapy regimens and curcumin (30 mg/kg/d) by intraperitoneal injection. The control group was given normal saline (NS) of the same volume by intraperitoneal injection. Continuous administration would be kept for 4 weeks and 3 days a week. The volumetric changes of every group were recorded. The serum of every group in different time was collected and the VEGF content was detected by ELISA. All mice were cercrificed and the tumor tissues were stripped and weighed after 4 weeks’ treatment. The tumor inhibition rate was calculated. The cell proliferation activity and apoptosis rate were detected by MTT and flow cytometry method. All data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 19.0. Results: The tumor volume, serum VEGF content, tumor inhibition rate, cell proliferation activity and apoptosis rate of routine chemotherapy group and curcumin chemotherapy group had significant differences comparing with the control group(P<0.05) after 4-week’s treatment. The cancer growth of curcumin chemotherapy group was obviously decreased and even tended to shrink comparing with routine chemotherapy group (χ2=15.732, P=0.007). The cell proliferation activity was significantly reduced and the apoptosis rate was significantly higher,(χ2=9.427, P=0.012)which showing the effect of chemotherapy was enhanced. Conclusions: The chemosensitivity of nephroblastoma cells could be improved by curcumin, then the effect of preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy scheme would be enhanced, the growth of nephroblastoma cells would be inhibited and the surgical risk of nephroblastoma would be reduced.
    15  Effect and molecular mechanism of mir-146a on proliferation of lung cancer cells by targeting and regulating MIF gene
    Wu-Ming Wang Ji-Chun Liu
    2016, 9(8):783-788. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.001
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 663.32 K](228)
    Objective: To discuss the effect and molecular mechanism of miR-146a on the proliferation of lung cancer cells by targeting and regulating the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene. Methods: RT-PCR was employed to detect expression of miR-146a; immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of MIF. The luciferase reporter gene technique was adopted to verify that MIF was the specific reverse target gene of miR 146a and the liposome LipofectamineTM2000 was employed to transfer the modeled miR-146a mimics, and miR-146a negative control (NC) in NSCLC cells to detect the expression of MIF mRNA and protein. MTT assay was used to detect cell viability, cloning technique to detect cell proliferation ability, AnnexinV-PI to detect cell apoptosis, UV spectrophotometry to detect viability of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 3 (Caspase 3), and western blot to detect expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in cells. Results: The expression of miR146a in NSCLC lung tissues was lower than that in the normal lung tissues besides the lung cancer; while the expression of miR-146a in NSCLC cells was lower than that in normal human embryonic lung tissues. It was chosen as the subsequent cell line for its appropriate expression in A549. The expression of MIF protein in NSCLC lung tissues was higher than that in the normal lung tissues besides the lung cancer. The luciferase reporter gene proved that MIF was the reverse target gene of miR-146a. The miR-146a mimics were transfected into A549 cells through the liposome. Compared with NC group, the expression of MIF protein and mRNA was significantly decreased (P<0.01), with the decrease in the cell viability(P<0.01), the decrease in the number of clones (P<0.01), cell apoptosis (P<0.01), the increase in the activity of Caspase 3 (P<0.01), and decrease in the phosphorylation of NF-κB p6(P<0.01).Conclusions: miR-146a has low expression in NSCLC tissues and cell lines, while MIF has the over expression in NSCLC tissues. The increased expression of miR-146a can inhibit the expression of MIF via the gene targeting and thus inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells and induce the apoptosis of cancer cells, which may be realized through NF-κB signaling pathway.
    16  Coexistence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a context of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
    Saul Levy-Blitchtein Stefany Plasencia-Rebata Domingo Morales Luna Juana del Valle Mendoza
    2016, 9(8):789-791. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.017
    [Abstract](63) [HTML](0) [PDF 700.58 K](277)
    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) represents 80%-85% of thyroid cancer and its prevalence has been rising in the last decades. Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) accounts for 3% of extranodal lymphomas and about 5% of thyroid malignancies, having a prevalence of one or two cases per million people. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue lymphoma represents approximately 30% of PTL. Both entities have an indolent course and a very good prognosis. Diagnosis is made by ultrasound and fine needle aspiration (FNA) or surgery specimen pathology. They have also been associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), but pathogenesis and its links remains to be known. Treatment remains controversial and surgery is generally accepted in cases of disease limited to thyroid, as the present. Patients with thyroid nodules should be observed and followed. If there is an enlargement by ultrasound or clinical symptoms, FNA should be performed promptly. Patients with HT deserve additional surveillance, since this condition is associated with both PTC and PTL. In this case, the management with surgery and radioactive iodine ablation therapy was effective for both entities. Patients with thyroid nodules should be properly evaluated with ultrasound and thyroid function tests. If there is an enlargement of the neck, reported by symptoms or ultrasound, it requires further investigation. HT is associated to both PTC and PTL so if the enlargement of the nodules is on this context additional tests such as FNA should be performed. In this case, the patient was managed with surgery and radioactive iodine ablation therapy and it was effective for both entities.
    17  Intraventricular neurocysticercosis: Presentation, diagnosis and management
    Tomas Ostergaard Jensen,?,Jeffrey John Post
    2016, 9(8):792-795. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.016
    [Abstract](49) [HTML](0) [PDF 670.61 K](259)
    Neurocysticercosis is thought to be the most common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and its epidemiology is changing due to increasing travel and migration. Evidence to guide management of the intraventricular form is limited. We aimed to review the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of intraventricular neurocysticercosis with reference to two recent cases seen at our institution. The intraventricular variant of neurocysticercosis is less common than parenchymal disease and usually presents with acutely raised intracranial pressure and untreated it progresses rapidly with high mortality. The diagnosis is based on imaging and serological tests but more invasive testing including histopathological examination of surgically acquired tissue specimens is sometimes required. Treatment is mainly surgical, using a neuroendoscopic approach if possible. Patients should also receive antihelmintic treatment with concomitant corticosteroids to reduce the incidence of shunt failure if a ventricular shunt is inserted and to treat viable lesions elsewhere.
    18  Arboviruses emerging in Peru: Need for early detection of febrile syndrome during El Ni?o episodes
    Derek Tantaléan-Yépez José Sánchez-Carbonel Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar Diego EspinozaMorales Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis Wilmer Silva-Caso María J. Pons Juana del ValleMendoza
    2016, 9(8):796-797. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.018
    [Abstract](80) [HTML](0) [PDF 607.54 K](281)
    The presence of El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) implies the presence of fluctuating rains in coastal areas and these changes influence the occurrence of febrile syndromes outbreaks. In Peru, Aedes aegypti is the vector responsible for various viruses such as the dengue, Zika, chikungunya, which is distributed in 18 Peruvian departments. These viruses cause similar clinical characteristics in the host and for this reason rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are needed so that the patient can receive timely treatment.
    19  State of the art in neurocysticercosis
    Arturo Carpio,?,Matthew L. Romo
    2016, 9(8):798-799. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.010
    [Abstract](114) [HTML](0) [PDF 597.65 K](263)
    Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) based merely on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging may be doubtful when considering that parenchymal and extraparenchymal NCC are practically distinct clinical and pathophysiological entities. In this letter, we comment on a recent case report by Rizvi et al.
    20  Cerebral malaria: An interactive brain mapping study
    Somsri Wiwanitkit?,Beuy Joob Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2016, 9(8):800-800. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.020
    [Abstract](98) [HTML](0) [PDF 585.58 K](279)
    This short communication discusses an interactive brain mapping study using connectomics technique on an important neurological complication of a common tropical infection, malaria. According to this study, the molecules and cells related to cerebral malaria can be successfully identified. The derived data can be useful for further study on pathophysiology and drug search for cerebral malaria.

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