Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 10,Issue 1,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective
    Nitwara Wikan Duncan R. Smith
    2017, 10(1):1-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.013
    [Abstract](64) [HTML](0) [PDF 267.44 K](357)
    Abstract:
    Phylogenic evidence suggests that the strain of Zika virus causing an unprecedented outbreak of disease in the Americas had its origin in Southeast Asia, where reports of isolated cases of Zika virus infection have occurred since 2010. Why there has been no large outbreak of Zika infection in Southeast Asia remains unclear and whether such an outbreak will occur in the future is a question of significant concern. This review looks at Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective and highlights some of the possible scenarios with regards to Zika virus in this part of the world as well as highlighting some of the research questions that need to be urgently addressed.
    2  An update on the 2014 Ebola outbreak in western Africa
    Haaris A. Shiwani Rebabonye B. Pharithi Barkat Khan Christian Binoun-A-Egom Peter Kruzliak Vincent Maher Emmanuel Eroume-A Egom
    2017, 10(1):6-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.008
    [Abstract](57) [HTML](0) [PDF 260.82 K](355)
    Abstract:
    The recent Ebola outbreak in Western Africa was the most devastating outbreak witnessed in recent times. There have been remarkable local and international efforts to control the crisis. Ebola Virus Disease is the focus of immense research activity. The progression of events in the region has been evolving swiftly and it is of paramount importance to the medical community to be acquainted with the situation. Over 28 000 people were inflicted with the condition, over 11 000 have died. Novel data has emerged regarding modes of transmission, providing rationale for recent flare-ups. Similarly, studies on survivors are elucidating the later stages of the disease recovery process. Novel techniques for diagnosis are also discussed. Finally, the current research regarding treatment and vaccine development is reviewed, particularly the implementation of rVSV-ZEBOV vaccination programs.
    3  Serodiagnosis of asymptomatic dengue infection
    Supawat Chatchen Arunee Sabchareon Chukiat Sirivichayakul
    2017, 10(1):11-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.002
    [Abstract](43) [HTML](0) [PDF 225.75 K](169)
    Abstract:
    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that is expanding across the world. The incidence of dengue infection, especially severe disease, has been increasing. DENV consist of 4 serotypes of single stranded RNA viruses (D1-D4) in the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Majority of dengue infections are asymptomatic cases, which cause difficulty in disease control and are important in dengue surveillance. There is still no gold standard to diagnose asymptomatic dengue infection. Plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) has been developed for many purposes such as immunological study, clinical study, vaccine trial and is currently the most sensitive and specific method for serological surveillance. However, PRNT shows some degree of cross reaction among different dengue serotypes especially secondary dengue infection cases and to other flaviviruses. Moreover, various modification since the beginning make PRNT lack of inter-laboratory standardization which is an important issue. This paper discusses the important of asymptomatic dengue infection and its diagnostic method.
    4  Dengue fever may mislead the surgeons when it presents as an acute abdomen
    Bingumal Jayasundara Lalith Perera Ajith de Silva
    2017, 10(1):15-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.010
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 12.20 M](158)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To review the management experience of a consecutive series of patients presenting as acute surgical abdomen whom were ultimately diagnosed to have DF (Dengue fever)/ DHF (Dengue heamorrhagic fever). Methods: Clinical data of all cases of apparent acute abdomen (AA) which were later confirmed as having DF/DHF reviewed by two surgical units from December 2012 to December 2013 were analyzed. Initially confirmed patients with DF/DHF who developed abdominal symptoms were not considered. Results: Out of the seventeen cases (7 males, age range 10-71 years) presented with fever and AA; appendicitis,cholecystitis, pancreatitis and non-specific peritonitis were suspected initially in 8, 5, 1 and 3 cases, respectively. Neutropenia or thrombocytopenia signifying DF/DHF occurred only in 11 patients at first evaluation thus six remained as surgical candidates beyond 24 h. One patient underwent appendicectomy with a prolonged hospital stay. DF was confirmed by serology in all patients, latest by fourth day of admission. One required blood product transfusion, 4 needed critical care treatment and there was 1 death. Conclusions: DF/DHF misleads the clinicians when it presents as AA. Initial heamatological and ultrasonographic findings may be equivocal creating a diagnostic and management dilemma. Vigilant clinical suspicion and early dengue serological assessment is advisable in equivocal cases of AAs with fever in dengue endemic areas, to confirm/exclude the infection in order to avoid unnecessary surgical morbidity in the presence of DF.
    5  The role of heme-oxygenase-1 in pathogenesis of cerebral malaria in the co-culture model of human brain microvascular endothelial cell and ITG Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells
    Pimwan Thongdee Kesara Na-Bangchang
    2017, 10(1):20-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.011
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 285.86 K](138)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the role of human host heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in pathogenesis of cerebral malaria in the in vitro model. Methods: The effect of human host HO-1 [human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC)] on hemoglobin degradation in the co-culture model of HBMEC and ITG Plasmodium falciparum-infected red cells (iRBC) through measurement of the enzymatic products iron and bilirubin. Results: Following exposure to the HO-1 inducer CoPPIX at all concentrations, the HBMEC cells apoptosis occurred, which could be prominently observed at 15 μM of 3 h exposure. In contrast, there was no significant change in the morphology in the non-exposed iRBC at all concentrations and exposure time. This observation was in agreement with the levels of the enzymatic degradation products iron and bilirubin, of which the highest levels (106.03 and 1 753.54% of baseline level, respectively) were observed at 15 μM vs. 20 μM at 3 h vs. 24 h exposure. For the effect of the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPPIX, HBMEC cell morphology was mostly unchanged, but significant inhibitory effect on cell apoptosis was seen at 10 μM for the exposure period of 3 h (37.17% of baseline level). The degree of the inhibitory effect as reflected by the level of iron produced was not clearly observed (highest effect at 10 μM and 3 h exposure). Conclusions: Results provide at least in part, insight into the contribution of HO-1 on CM pathogenesis and need to be confirmed in animal model.
    6  Antileishmanial activities of caffeic acid phenethyl ester loaded PLGA nanoparticles against Leishmania infantum promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro
    Emrah Sefik Abamor
    2017, 10(1):25-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.006
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 383.24 K](143)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate and compare the antileishmanial effects of CAPE and (CAPE)PLGA NPs on Leishmania infantum (L.infantum) promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro. Methods: Efficacies of CAPE, (CAPE)PLGA NPs and free PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) on promastigotes were evaluated using MTT and promastigote count assays, and their anti-amastigote effects were determined via infection index analysis. Griess reaction was also performed to calculate nitric oxide production of macrophages exposed to investigated molecules. Results: It was determined that CAPE and (CAPE)PLGA NPs demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on L.infantum promastigotes and amastigotes, while free NPs did not exhibit any meaningful antileishmanial effectiveness. The IC50 values of CAPE for L.infantum promastigotes and amastigotes were assessed as (51.0±0.8) and (19.0±1.4) μg/mL, respectively (P<0.05). On the other side, it was revealed that (CAPE)PLGA NPs had superior antileishmanial activity on both forms of parasites since its IC50 values for L.infantum promastigotes and amastigotes were (32.0±1.3) and (8.0±0.9) μg/mL, respectively (P<0.05). It was also determined that both agents strongly stimulated nitric oxide production of macrophages. Conclusions: The obtained results show that (CAPE)PLGA NPs have a great potential to be especially used in treatment of visceral leishmaniasis; however, in vivo antileishmanial screening of these molecules should be performed in the near future.
    7  Neuroprotective effect of Spilanthes acmella Murr. on pesticide-induced neuronal cells death
    Wilasinee Suwanjang Bongkot Khongniam Sujittra Srisung Supaluk Prachayasittikul Virapong Prachayasittikul
    2017, 10(1):35-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.012
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 334.50 K](152)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate protective effects of Spilanthes acmella (S. acmella) Murr. extracts against pesticide-induced neuronal cells death and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in dopaminergic (SH-SY5Y) cells lines. Methods: Cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells was studied by treating the cells with various concentration of pirimicarb for 24 hr. Neuroprotective effect of S. acmella Murr. extracts was investigated by adding the plant extracts to the medium for 24 hr prior to the incubation with 100 μM H2O2 or with pirimicarb for 24 hr. Control-untreated cells were incubated with the culture medium. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay, calpain and calpastatin expressions were analyzed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Results: Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with S. acmella Murr. extracts (1 μg/mL) for 24 hr significantly increased the dopaminergic neurons in pirimicarb-induced neurotoxicity. In addition, pretreatment with the S. acmella Murr. extracts led to decreased calpain but increased calpastatin protein levels. Conclusion: S. acmella Murr. extracts exerted neuroprotective effect, via an alteration of calcium homeostasis, against pirimicarb induced neurotoxicity. The S. acmella Murr. might be a potential natural candidate with neuroprotective activity.
    8  First isolation of glutinol and a bioactive fraction with good anti-inflammatory activity from n-hexane fraction of Peltophorum africanum leaf
    Salmon A Adebayo Leshweni J Shai Jacobus N Eloff
    2017, 10(1):42-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.004
    [Abstract](102) [HTML](0) [PDF 321.43 K](171)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of different fractions and glutinol(isolated compound), using nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition as an indication of anti-inflammatory activity. Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay determining the inhibition of the activity of pro-inflammatory enzyme model. Cyclooxygenases and inducible nitric oxide synthase are crucial enzymes involved in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory conditions. Results: Sub-fraction F3.3 that was derived from n-hexane fraction of PA leaves significantly inhibited (P = 0.01) the catalytic activity of COX-2 (IC50 = 0.67 μg/mL) better than isolated compound, glutinol (IC50 = 1.22 μg/ mL), compound 2 (CP2) (IC50 = 1.71 μg/mL) and sub-fraction F3.3.0 (IC50 = 1.30 μg/mL). A similar trend was observed in investigation of the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells by F3.3, glutinol, CP2 and F3.3.0. Inducible COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase are among potent signalling enzymes that exacerbate inflammation. Conclusions: Bioactive sub-fractions (F3.3 and F3.3.0) derived from the n-hexane fraction of PA had good anti-inflammatory activity, and the isolated compound, and glutinol may be useful as a template for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs.
    9  Evaluating the safety of forsythin from Forsythia suspensa leaves by acute and sub-chronic oral administration in rodent models
    Zhong Han Xia-Ling Lei Hong Zhang Lu Liu Zhi-Sen Chen Wei Yang Zhao-Rong Lun
    2017, 10(1):47-51. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.10.011
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 278.11 K](144)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To access the toxicity of forsythin from Forsythia suspensa leaves and evaluate its safety. Methods: Acute toxicity was determined by oral administration of a single dose of 18 100 mg/kg forsythin in NIH mice. Sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by oral administration of several doses of forsythin for 30 days at does of 0, 540, 1 620, and 6 480 mg/kg in SD rats. Results: In the acute toxicity study, mortality was not observed after 14 days. In addition, clinically relevant adverse effects, or variations in body weight or food consumption were not observed. Similarly, after 30 days in the sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality or significant toxicological effects such as decreased food consumption, body weight, biochemical parameters and vital organs etc. were noticed. Conclusion: The results revealed that the forsythin from Forsythia suspensa leaves has low or no toxicity via oral administration, and therefore is suitable for further development and applications.
    10  Adipose tissue-derived stem cells ameliorates dermal fibrosis in mouse models of scleroderma
    Wei Chen Zhi-Kuan Xia Man-Hui Zhang Gui-Chun Ding Xiao-Yan Zhang Zheng-Xu Wang Rong-Ya Yang
    2017, 10(1):52-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.10.005
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 281.98 K](139)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for limited cutaneous scleroderma (LS) in mouse models. Methods: ADSCs were isolated from pathogen-free female C57BL/6 mice and LS was induced in wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice via daily injection of bleomycin (0.1 mL300 μg/mL) for 4 weeks; then the ADSCs were subcutaneously injected into the dorsal area in the model treatment group, and 100 μL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was injected into the same site in the model control group. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to track the cells using an in vivo imaging system on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after transplantation. All mice were sacrificed and histologic analyses were performed after 4 weeks, and the skin thickness, collagen deposition and the total content of hydroxyproline were evaluated. Additionally, immunohistochemistry were performed to compare the tissue expression and distribution of TGF-β1 and VEGF between the ADSCs treatment group and the treatment control group. Results: WT C57BL/6 LS mouse model were successfully established and GFP in vivo fluorescence imaging showed that the translated ADSCs survived at the local for at least 4 weeks. Compared with the control group,the ADSCs treatment group significantly attenuated bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis, reduced the skin thickness and the total content of hydroxyproline (P<0.05). The ADSCs treatment group displayed significantly lower levels of TGF-β1 and higher levels of VEGF than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: ADSCs may provide a feasible and practical treatment for autoimmune diseases such as LS and ameliorate dermal fibrosis.
    11  Potential of Zimbabwean commercial probiotic products and strains of Lactobacillus plantarum as prophylaxis and therapy against diarrhoea caused by Escherichia coli in children
    Walter Chingwaru Jerneja Vidmar
    2017, 10(1):57-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.009
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 358.93 K](129)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the potential of commercial fermented products sold in the country, and strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum)as prophylaxis and therapy against diarrhoea in children. Methods: The antimicrobial potential of cultures of lactobacilli enriched from 4 Zimbabwean commercial food/beverage products: Dairibord Lacto sour milk (DLSM), Probrand sour milk (PSM), Kefalos Vuka cheese (KVC) and Chibuku opaque beer (COB); and four strains of L. plantarum obtained from Balkan traditional cheeses against clinical strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was assayed using the well diffusion method. Three commercial paediatric antidiarrhoeal drug products: Biogaia (BG), Prolife (PL) and Probio Junior (PJ) and a mutant strain of E. coli [strain 11105 (ATCC) - a vitamin B-12 auxotroph and penicillin G acylase-producing strain] were used as controls. An agar diffusion assay and a competitive exclusion assay were carried out on Mueller Hinton agar. Results: Crude cultures of putative lactobacillus strains obtained from Zimbabwean dairy products (Probrand sour milk, Kefalos Vuka vuka cheese and Chibuku opaque beer) had significantly higher antimicrobial activities against clinical strains of E. coli than strains of L. plantarum isolated from Balkan cheeses (CLP1, CLP2 or CLP3) and crude microbial cultures from commercial paediatric probiotic products (BG, PJ and PL) of a culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG (P<0.05). Conclusions: The putative Lactobacilli from four commercial Zimbabwean dairy products (Probrand sour milk, Kefalos Vuka vuka cheese and Chibuku opaque beer), and three strains of L. plantarum from Balkan cheeses (CLP1, CLP2 or CLP3) exhibited high antibacterial activities that can be harnessed to control paediatric diarrhoea that is caused by pathogenic strains of E. coli. Studies to characterise the probiotic potential of the live cultures in the products and the new strains of L. plantarum are underway.
    12  Effect of PPARγ agonist (rosiglitazone) on the secretion of Th2 cytokine in asthma mice
    Ji-Hui Yu Li Long Zhi-Xiao Luo Jie-Ru You
    2017, 10(1):63-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.10.006
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 9.50 M](117)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the effect of PPARγagonist (rosiglitazone) on the secretion of Th2 cytokines and the proportion of immune cell subsets in asthma mice. Methods: Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were used to build asthma models. Those mice were divided into the normal control group, model group and rosiglitazone group. Differences of the changes in lung histopathology of mice in the three group were observed through hematoxylin and eosin (HE) strain, and the numbers of the total cells, eosinophils and neutrophils in BALF of mice in the three groups were compared. ELISA and real-time PCR were employed to detect the protein levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, IL-4 and IL-10 and mRNA level, respectively. Flow cytometry number was implied to analyze the proportion of immune cell subsets in peripheral blood of mice. Results: Compared with the mice in the control group, and mice of the model group, the infiltration of inflammatory cells in BALF increased, bronchial smooth muscle became thickened, a large amount of collagen deposited, the secretion of Th2 cytokine increased significantly, the ratio of regulatory T cells (Treg) decreased, the ratio of T17 cells rose distinctly; while in mice of the rosiglitazone group, the changes of their lung histopathology were improved obviously, the number of infiltration of inflammatory cells declined, the thickened smooth muscle relieved, the deposition of collagen decreased, the secretion of Th2 cytokine was inhibited, the ratio of Treg went up, and the increased of the ratio of T17 cells was inhibited but still not return to normal level. Conclusions: Rosiglitazone can regulate the proportion of Treg and Th17 cells and inhibit the secretion of Th2 cytokines,
    13  Measles outbreaks in the Kyeongin area of the Republic of Korea, 20132014: A single-center experience in a country of measles elimination
    Sun Hyoung Park Dong Hun Lee Jang Yong Jin Young-Lim Shin Meeyong Shin Sung Shin Kim Won Suk Suh Jae Ock Park Yong Hee Hong
    2017, 10(1):67-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.003
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 313.19 K](124)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To identify the source of infection and determine the clinical features and laboratory finding of measles infection. Methods: In 27 measles patients, except for 3 adult patients, the rest of 24 pediatric measles cases were analyzed with regard to age, sex, immunization status, transmission routes and molecular genotyping of measles virus. Eighteen measles patients who admitted in isolation ward were set apart to investigate clinical findings and its correlation with laboratory characteristics. Retrospective analysis of cases was conducted in this study.Results: Of the 24 pediatric patients, 23 (95.8%) had not received any measles-containing vaccine (MCV). Sixteen of the patients (66.7%) were aged <12 months. The suspicious index case of a girl aged 34 months was not vaccinated with MCV1 and got measles after a trip to Philippines, and molecular genotype was revealed as B3. Measles outbreaks in the community such as a restaurant were followed by this one imported case. According to analysis of 18 patients admitted in isolation ward, the median level of C-reactive protein (CRP) was 0.38 mg/ dL and that of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was 1200 IU/L. All of the 18 patients had LDH levels above the normal range. Age correlated with CRP (ρ = 0.528, P = 0.024) and LDH (ρ = 0.501, P = 0.034). The duration of fever was correlated with the duration of fever before rash (ρ = 0.898, P < 0.01). The duration of hospitalization was correlated with CRP (ρ = 0.586, P = 0.011). The white blood cell counts were correlated with the levels of LDH (ρ = 0.505, P = 0.033), aspartate aminotransferase (ρ = 0.507, P = 0.032), and alanine aminotransferase (ρ = 0.481, P = 0.043). Conclusions: Early weaning of maternally derived measles antibodies therefore vaccination of MCV1 at a young age from 9 months to 12 months should be considered in situations of early exposure. Furthermore there is a call for consideration of scheduling an earlier age for the first dose of MMR vaccine in Europe. It is necessary for Korea to investigate the duration of the presence and quantitative analysis of maternal measles antibodies in infants and to reconsider the timing of MCV1.
    14  Identifications of drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral treatment naive HIV-1 patients in Peninsular Malaysia
    Rozainanee Mohd Zain Nabila Ibrahim Suriani Ismail Jeyanthi Suppiah Nor Aziyah Mat Rahim Ravindran Thayan
    2017, 10(1):73-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.005
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](0) [PDF 275.72 K](143)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine drug resistance mutations and the HIV-1 subtypes among antiretroviral treatment naive HIV-1 patients in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: A total of 45 samples from four hospitals that provide HIV viral load services were subjected to the amplification of the protease and two third of reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Drug resistance mutation (DRM) interpretation reports the presence of mutations related to protease inhibitors (PIs), Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) based on analysis using Stanford HIV database program. Results: DRMs were identified in 35% of patients, among which 46.7% of them showed minor resistance to protease inhibitor with A71V and L10l were the commonest DRMs detected. About 21.4% and 50.0% of patients had mutations to NRTIs and NNRTIs, respectively. CRF01_AE was found to be the predominant HIV-1 subtype. Conclusions: These findings have served as an initial crucial data in determining the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance for the country. However, more samples from various parts of the country need to be accumulated and analyzed to provide overall HIV-1 drug resistance in the country.
    15  Forecasting the number of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in south of Fars province, Iran using seasonal ARIMA time series method
    Mehdi Sharafi Haleh Ghaem Hamid Reza Tabatabaee Hossein Faramarzi
    2017, 10(1):77-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.007
    [Abstract](48) [HTML](0) [PDF 13.33 M](142)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To predict the trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis and assess the relationship between the disease trend and weather variables in south of Fars province using Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model. Methods: The trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis was predicted using Mini tab software and SARIMA model. Besides, information about the disease and weather conditions was collected monthly based on time series design during January 2010 to March 2016. Moreover, various SARIMA models were assessed and the best one was selected. Then, the model’s fitness was evaluated based on normality of the residuals’ distribution, correspondence between the fitted and real amounts, and calculation of Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC). Results: The study results indicated that SARIMA model (4,1,4)(0,1,0)(12) in general and SARIMA model (4,1,4) (0,1,1)(12) in below and above 15 years age groups could appropriately predict the disease trend in the study area. Moreover, temperature with a three-month delay (lag3) increased the disease trend, rainfall with a four-month delay (lag4) decreased the disease trend, and rainfall with a nine-month delay (lag9) increased the disease trend. Conclusions: Based on the results, leishmaniasis follows a descending trend in the study area in case drought condition continues, SARIMA models can suitably measure the disease trend, and the disease follows a seasonal trend.
    16  miR-21 targets and inhibits tumor suppressor gene PTEN to promote prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion: An experimental study
    Yu Yang Jia-Xiang Guo Zhi-Qiang Shao
    2017, 10(1):84-87. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.09.011
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 9.13 M](123)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study whether miR-21 targets and inhibits tumor suppressor gene PTEN can promote prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Methods: Prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 were cultured and divided into negative control group (NC group), miR-21 group, pcDNA3.1 group, miR-21+pcDNA3.1 group and miR-21+PTEN group that were transfected with different miR and plasmid, respectively. After 12 h and 24 h of transfection, the cell viability and invasive cell number were determined; after 24 h of transfection, Bcl-2, Survivin, MMP2, MMP9, PTEN, PI3K, and AKT expression in cells were determined. Results: After 12 h and 24 h of transfection, OD value and invasive cell number of miR-21 group were significantly higher than those of NC group; after 24 h of transfection, Bcl-2, Survivin, MMP2, MMP9, PI3K and AKT expression levels were significantly higher than those of NC group while PTEN expression level was significantly lower than that of NC group; after 12 h and 24 h of transfection, OD value and invasive cell number of miR-21+pcDNA3.1 group were significantly higher than those of pcDNA3.1 group, and the OD value and invasive cell number of miR-21+PTEN group were significantly lower than those of miR-21+pcDNA3.1 group; after 24 h of transfection, Bcl-2, Survivin, MMP2 and MMP9 content of miR-21+pcDNA3.1 group were significantly higher than those of pcDNA3.1 group, and Bcl-2, Survivin, MMP2 and MMP9 content of miR-21+PTEN group were significantly lower than those of miR21+pcDNA3.1 group. Conclusions: miR-21 can target and inhibit tumor suppressor gene PTEN expression to promote prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion.
    17  Situation analysis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area, south of Iran
    Mansour Nazari Saman Nazari Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd Ali Najafi Sasan Nazari
    2017, 10(1):88-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.001
    [Abstract](68) [HTML](0) [PDF 286.58 K](153)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To update current situation of the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Kazerun County, southwest of Iran and to analyze the epidemiological aspects of the disease during 2005-2015. Methods: Data on CL were obtained from the Health Center of Kazerun County, and then were analyzed and mapped using SPSS and ArcGIS 10.3. Results: A total of 700 cases of CL were recorded during the study period with an overall decreasing trend from 2005 to 2015. More than 60% of the patients were inhabitants of rural areas and males were infected more than females. Although there was not a significant difference between gender, job categories,residence and CL infection (P>0.05), age groups were significantly different (P<0.05). But there was no significant correlation between monthly cases of the disease with average temperature (P>0.05). Most of the acute lesions were found to be present on the hand, leg and face, respectively. The average CL incidence in the study area was calculated as 24.9/100 000 population. A hot spot for the disease was found in southern part of the area (P<0.05). Conclusions: This study revealed that CL is present in Kazerun country. Thus, effective monitoring and sustained suveillance system is crucial in counteracting the disease, and if possible, to eliminate it.
    18  Correlation of RUNX3 expression with microvessel density in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and clinical significance
    Jun Xue? Xue-Liang Wu Xian-Tao Huang Ming Qu Fei Guo Guang-Yuan Sun Peng-Cheng Zhang Lei Han Li-Ming Pan
    2017, 10(1):94-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.010
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 7.43 M](126)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the expression of RUNX3 in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and its correlation with microvessel density (MVD), and investigate the clinical pathological prognostic significance of RUNX3 and MVD in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: The expression value of RUNX3 and MVD in 70 specimens’ colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry staining technique. The correlation between their expression and the clinicopathologic features was also investigated. Results: The expression value of RUNX3 and the positive rates of RUNX3 in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues were 3.25±1.14 and 25.71% (18/70). The expression value of MVD in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues was 13.14±3.23. Expression of RUNX3 and MVD value were correlated with CEA, serosal invasion, liver metastasis, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage (P<0.01). The expression value of RUNX3 had negative correlations with that of MVD. Conclusions: The high expression of RUNX3 could inhibit tumor microvascular generation in order to have negative control response on invasion and distant metastasis.
    19  Prostatic abscess of Klebsiella pneumoniae complicating septic pulmonary emboli and meningitis: A case report and brief review
    Jai-Wen Liu Tzu-Chieh Lin Yao-Tien Chang Che-An Tsai Sung-Yuan Hu
    2017, 10(1):98-100. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.014
    [Abstract](60) [HTML](0) [PDF 275.78 K](135)
    Abstract:
    Prostatic abscess is a rare entity with an incidence of 0.5% to 2.5% in all prostate diseases and usually occurs in the 5th and 6th decades of life with immunocompromised status. Prostatic abscess might be a process of evolution from acute prostatitis. Klebsiella pneumoniae is the leading microorganism in the diabetic patients of prostatic abscess in Taiwan. A 60year-old diabetic man, with a one-week history of acute bacterial prostatitis was reported in this study, presenting to the emergency department with sudden altered mental status. The abdominal computed tomographic scan demonstrated lobulated prostatic abscess and multiple septic pulmonary emboli with lung abscesses. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid showed white blood cells of 10 771 counts/mm3 with segmented neutrophils of 99%. Cultures of blood, cerebrospinal fluid and sputum yielded Klebsiella pneumoniae. We concluded that computed tomographic scan can make a definite diagnosis of prostatic abscess associated with complications and management with empiric antibiotics and adequate drainage is suggested.

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