Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 10,Issue 8,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Domestic reptiles as source of zoonotic bacteria: a mini review
    Valentina Virginia Ebani
    2017, 10(8):789-794. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.020
    [Abstract](80) [HTML](0) [PDF 265.55 K](237)
    Abstract:
    Captive reptiles, always more often present in domestic environment as pets, may harbor and excrete a large variety of zoonotic pathogens. Among them, Salmonella is the most well-known agent, whereas there are very scant data about infections by mycobacteria, chlamydiae and leptospirae in cold-blooded animals. However, the investigations that found antibody reactions and/or the bacteria in samples collected from free-ranging and captive reptiles show that herpetofauna may be involved in the epidemiology of these infections. The present review reports the updated knowledge about salmonellosis, mycobacteriosis, chlamydiosis and leptospirosis in reptiles and underlines the risk of infection to which people, mainly children, are exposed.
    2  Medicinal plant products targeting quorum sensing for combating bacterial infections
    Abdelhakim Bouyahya Nadia Dakka Abdeslam Et-Touys Jamal Abrini Youssef Bakri
    2017, 10(8):795-809. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.021
    [Abstract](78) [HTML](0) [PDF 427.45 K](302)
    Abstract:
    Traditional treatment of infectious diseases is based on compounds that aim to kill or inhibit bacterial growth. The bacterial resistance against antibiotics is a serious issue for public health. Today, new therapeutic targets other than the bacterial wall were deciphered. Quorum sensing or bacterial pheromones are molecules called auto-inducer secreted by bacteria to regulate some functions such as antibiotic resistance and biofilms formation. This therapeutic target is well-studied worldwide, nevertheless the scientific data are not updated and only recent researches started to look into its potential as a target to fight against infectious diseases. A major concern with this approach is the frequently observed development of resistance to antimicrobial compounds. Therefore, this paper aims to provide a current overview of the quorum sensing system in bacteria by revealing their implication in biofilms formation and the development of antibiotic resistance, and an update on their importance as a potential target for natural substances.
    3  Recent research advances on Chromobacterium violaceum
    Vijay Kothari Sakshi Sharma Divya Padia
    2017, 10(8):810-818. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.022
    [Abstract](63) [HTML](0) [PDF 317.14 K](249)
    Abstract:
    Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram-negative bacterium, which has been used widely in microbiology labs involved in quorum sensing (QS) research. Among the QS-regulated traits of this bacterium, violacein production has received the maximum attention. Violacein production in this organism, however is not under sole control of QS machinery, and other QSregulated traits of this bacterium also need to be investigated in better detail. Though not often involved in human infections, this bacterium is being viewed as an emerging pathogen. This review attempts to highlight the recent research advances on Chromobacterium violaceum, with respect to violacein biosynthesis, development of various applications of this bacterium and its bioactive metabolite violacein, and its pathogenicity.
    4  Novel PCR primers to diagnose visceral Leishmaniasis using peripheral blood, spleen or bone marrow aspirates
    Mahbuba Khatun S M Sabbir Alam Abed Hussain Khan M. Anwar Hossain Jalaluddin Ashraful Haq Md. Shariful Alam Jilani Mohammad Tariqur Rahman Muhammad Manjurul Karim
    2017, 10(8):819-824. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.08.002
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 12.59 M](297)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To establish a suitable method of diagnosis of visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) using peripheral blood, spleen or bone marrow aspirates. Methods: Peripheral blood, bone marrow and spleen aspirate samples were collected from clinically suspected VL patients (n=26). A new PCR primer pair (MK1F/R) was designed targeting kinetoplast mini circle DNA sequences of Leishmania donovani, and Leishmania infantum, and was used to diagnose VL along with some other established primers for VL in polymerase chain reactions. Test was validated by comparing with several other diagnostic methods. Results: The designed primer set showed 100% specificity and 98% sensitivity in detecting VL using blood samples, when compared with more invasive samples: bone marrow or spleen aspirates.Conclusions: The newly designed primer MK1F/R could be a better alternative for PCR based diagnosis of VL using less invasive sample, peripheral blood instead of bone marrow or spleen aspirates.
    5  Prediction of promiscuous T cell epitopes in RNA dependent RNA polymerase of Chikungunya virus
    Yasir Waheed Sher Zaman Safi Muzammil Hasan Najmi Hafsa Aziz Muhammad Imran
    2017, 10(8):825-829. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.023
    [Abstract](87) [HTML](0) [PDF 270.32 K](290)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore RNA dependent RNA polymerase of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and develop T cell based epitopes with high antigenicity and good binding affinity for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) classes as targets for epitopes based CHIKV vaccine. Methods: In this study we downloaded 371 non-structural protein 4 protein sequences of CHIKV belonging to different regions of the world from the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) virus pathogen resource database. All the sequences were aligned by using CLUSTALW software and a consensus sequence was developed by using Uni Pro U Gene Software version 1.2.1. Propred I and Propred software were used to predict HLA I and HLA II binding promiscuous epitopes from the consensus sequence of non-structural protein 4 protein. The predicted epitopes were analyzed to determine their antigenicity through Vaxijen server version 2.0. All the HLA I binding epitopes were scanned to determine their immunogenic potential through the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB). All the predicted epitopes of our study were fed to IEDB database to determine whether they had been tested earlier. Results: Twenty two HLA class II epitopes and eight HLA class I epitopes were predicted. The promiscuous epitopes WMNMEVKII at position 486–494 and VRRLNAVLL at 331–339 were found to bind with 37 and 36 of the 51 HLA class II alleles respectively. Epitope MANRSRYQS at position 58–66 and epitopes YQSRKVENM at positions 64–72 were predicted to bind with 12 and 9 HLA II alleles with antigenicity scores of 0.754 9 and 1.013 0 respectively. Epitope YSPPINVRL was predicted to bind 18 HLA I alleles and its antigenicity score was 1.425 9 and immunogenicity score was 0.173 83. This epitope is very useful in the preparation of a universal vaccine against CHIKV infection. Conclusions: Epitopes reported in this study showed promiscuity, antigenicity as well as good binding affinity for the HLA classes. These epitopes will provide the baseline for development of efficacious vaccine for CHIKV.
    6  A single administration of fish oil inhibits the acute inflammatory response in rats
    Laura Lícia Milani de Arruda Franciele Queiroz Ames Damila Rodrigues de Morais Renata Grespan Ana Paula Maziero Gil Maria Angélica Raffaini Covas Pereira Silva Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado
    2017, 10(8):830-837. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.019
    [Abstract](74) [HTML](0) [PDF 16.64 M](282)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antiinflammatory effects of a single administration of fish oil (FO) on the acute inflammatory response. Methods: The paw edema and pleurisy models were used to evaluate the effects of FO dissolved in olive oil (FOP) orally administered in a single dose in rats. Nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the pleural exudate were performed according to the Griess method and the cytokine concentrations were determined by Luminex bead-based multiplex assay. Results: FOP treatment (30 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced paw edema. FOP treatment at 18.75, 37.5, 75.0, 150.0, and 300 mg/kg decreased both the volume of pleural exudate and cellular migration into the pleural cavity and each of these doses presented the same effectiveness. Treatment with FOP (300 mg/kg) reduced NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 concentrations in the pleural exudate. Conclusions: The present data provide evidence that FO has inhibitory effects on the acute inflammatory response when administered in a single dose in rats. This effect might be attributable to a direct inhibitory effect of FO on the production or release of inflammatory mediators that are involved in the pathological processes evaluated herein.
    7  Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors protect against brain and liver damage caused by acute malathion intoxication
    Omar M.E. Abdel-Salam Eman R. Youness Nadia A. Mohammed Noha N. Yassen Yasser A. Khadrawy Safinaz Ebrahim El-Toukhy Amany A. Sleem
    2017, 10(8):838-849. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.018
    [Abstract](95) [HTML](0) [PDF 477.22 K](248)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME),a nonselective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, on oxidative stress and tissue damage in brain and liver and on DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes in malathion intoxicated rats. Methods: Malathion (150 mg/ kg) was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) along with L-NAME or 7-NI (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and rats were euthanized 4 h later. The lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (nitrite), reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity were measured in both brain and liver. Moreover, the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) acetylcholin?esterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glucose concentrations were determined in brain. Liver enzyme determination, Comet assay, histopathological examination of brain and liver sections and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunohistochemistry were also performed. Results: (i) Rats treated with only malathion exhibited increased nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) accompanied with a decrease in GSH content, and PON-1 activity in brain and liver. Glutathione peroxidase activity, TAC, glucose concentrations, AChE and BChE activities were decreased in brain. There were also raised liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and increased DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes (Comet assay). Malathion caused marked histopathological changes and increased the expression of iNOS in brain and liver tissues. (ii) In brain of malathion-intoxicated rats, L-NAME or 7-NI resulted in decreased nitrite and MDA contents while increasing TAC and PON1 activity. Reduced GSH and GPx activity showed an increase by L-NAME. AChE activity increased by 20 mg/kg L-NAME and 10 mg/kg 7-NI. AChE activity decreased by the higher dose of 7-NI while either dose of 7-NI resulted in decreased BChE activity.(iii) In liver of malathion-intoxicated rats, decreased MDA content was observed after L-NAME or 7-NI. Nitrite level was unchanged by L-NAME but increased after 7-NI which also resulted in decreased GSH concentration and PON1 activity. Either inhibitor resulted in decreased liver ALT activity. (iv) DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes was markedly inhibited by L-NAME or 7-NI treatment. (v) iNOS expression in brain and liver decreased by L-NAME or 7-NI. (vi) More marked improvement of the histopathological alterations induced by malathion in brain and liver was observed after 7-NI compared with L-NAME. Conclusions: In malathion intoxicated rats, the neuronal NOS inhibitor 7-NI and to much less extent L-NAME were able to protect the brain and liver tissue integrity along with improvement in oxidative stress parameters. The decrease in DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes by NOS inhibitors also suggests the involvement of nitric oxide in this process.
    8  Growth inhibitory effect of phenolic extracts of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. in dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L) in parent and F1 generation
    Urbbi Devi Dipsikha Bora
    2017, 10(8):850-854. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.08.003
    [Abstract](45) [HTML](0) [PDF 11.42 M](272)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the lethal and emergence inhibitory effect of alkaloid, phenolic and terpenoid extracts of Ziziphus jujuba (Z. jujuba; Rhamnaceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), and to explore the effect of the most effective fraction on developmental and biochemical parameters of the dengue vector. Methods: The fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were exposed to alkaloid, phenolic and terpenoid extracts from Z. jujuba leaves to test their toxicity and emergence inhibitory effects. Phenolic extract, being the most effective was further tested against the mosquitoes for their growth inhibitory effect supported by biochemical changes in the parent and F1 generation. Results: While the different secondary metabolite fractions i.e., alkaloid, phenolics and terpenoid caused mortality at larval and pupal stages, the LC50 value was the lowest for phenolic fraction. Further study carried out with the phenolic fraction revealed that it affected growth by decreasing adult life span, fertility and fecundity of the mosquitoes. The reduction in growth was also accompanied by decrease in carbohydrate and lipid levels. Conclusions: It is concluded that the phenolic extract of the leaves of Z. jujuba is a potential candidate for control of Aedes mosquitoes.
    9  Measurement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of medicinal plant Coronopus didymus
    Hafiza Noreen Nabil Semmar Muhammad Farman James S.O. McCullagh
    2017, 10(8):855-862. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.024
    [Abstract](65) [HTML](0) [PDF 17.63 M](263)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the total phenolic content and compare the antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts and fractions from the aerial parts of Coronopus didymus through various assays. Methods: Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the in vitro antioxidant activity of a number of different extracts was investigated in a dose-dependent manner with three different methods: the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A flavone was isolated from the most active ethanolic extract with high antioxidant activity using size exclusion chromatography. IC50 values were calculated for the DPPH and ABTS methods. The FRAP activity was assessed in terms of μM Fe (II) equivalent. Results: The phenolic content was found to be highest in the ethanol extract (CDA Et; 47.8 mM GAE) and the lowest in the dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM; 3.13 mM GAE). The ethanol extract showed high radical scavenging activity towards DPPH and ABTS radicals with IC50 values of (7.80102) and (4.32 102) μg/mL, respectively. The most active ethanol extract had a FRAP value of 1 921.7 μM Fe (II) equivalent. The isolated flavone F10C (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy flavone) was far more effective for scavenging free radicals in the DPPH and ABTS assays with IC50 of 43.8 and 0.08 μg/mL, than the standard trolox, with IC50 values of 97.5 and 21.1 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the flavone F10C and the standard ascorbic acid had FRAP values of 1621.7 and 16038.0 μM Fe (II) equivalents, respectively. Conclusions: The total phenolic content of extracts in decreasing order is ethanol extract (CDA Et)> acetone extract (CDA ACE)> phenolic extract (CDA MW)> n-hexane extract (CDA nHX)> chloroform extract (CDA CHL)> dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM). The ordering of extracts in terms of antioxidant activity from highest to lowest is CDA Et> CDA MW> CDA DCM> CDA CHL> CDA ACE> CDA nHX in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. A significant relationship is found between antioxidant potential and total phenolic content, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the major contributors to the antioxidant activity of Coronopus didymus.
    10  Epidemiological analysis of 133 malaria cases in Shanxian County, Shandong Province, China
    Qi-Qi Shi Peng Cheng Chong-Xing Zhang Xiu-Xia Guo Li-Juan Liu Hai-Fang Wang Jing-Xuan Kou Xiao-Dan Huang Huai-Wei Wang Mao-Qing Gong
    2017, 10(8):863-868. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.08.004
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](0) [PDF 301.43 K](218)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To conduct an analysis of the epidemiological changes in malaria that have occurred in Shanxian county from 2002 to 2016. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted and data were collected from web-based reporting system to explore the epidemiological characteristics in Shanxian county from 2002 to 2016. All individual case information was obtained from village malaria servicers organized by the local Shandong Institute of Parasitic Diseases. Results: A total of 133 cases were identified as malaria in Shanxian county during this period, including 124 indigenous cases (93.2%) and 9 imported cases (6.8%). The 124 indigenous malaria cases were infected with Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax), whereas 7 of the 9 confirmed imported cases were infected with Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum), 1 was infected with Plasmodium ovale (P. ovale) and 1 patient was infected with P. falciparum mixed with P. vivax. The total number of malaria cases included 86 males (64.7%) and 47 females (35.3%). Age of the patients ranged from 1 to 83 years, although most (64.7%) infections occurred in the 21-to 60-year-old age group. Remarkably, 117 of the total malaria cases (98.0%) were reported from 2006-2011. The epidemic season was from June to October, with the peak occurring yearly from July to September. The most common occupation of the infected patients was farmer. In total, 58.1% of the cases occurred in 3 townships, namely, Fugang, Huanggang and Caozhuang. Conclusions: In Shanxian county, the local malaria incidence experienced an emerge-peak-control-eliminate status. However, due to the numbers of migrant labourers returning from Africa, imported cases were continuous and presented an increasing annual trend, which became a non-negligible and a significant impediment for malaria elimination. Therefore, the need to eliminate instances of malaria reintroduction to receptive malaria-free areas should drive strategies to align with the epidemiological changes.
    11  Nephroprotective effect of Murraya koenigii on Cyclophosphamide induced nephrotoxicity in rats
    Patel Mahipal Pawar Rajesh Singh
    2017, 10(8):869-873. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.08.005
    [Abstract](56) [HTML](0) [PDF 292.52 K](259)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the nephroprotective effect of defatted mehtanolic extract and aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii against Cyclophosphamide drug. Methods: Nephrotoxicity was induced by Cyclophosphamide in 7 d at 150 mg/kg body weight through intraperitoneal route in rat model. Nephroprotective activity of Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii) extract (100 mg/ kg and 200 mg/kg in intraperitoneal route) was measured, including nephrological source, oxidative stress parameters like superoxide dismutase, glutathione, the lipid peroxide and in vivo assay like blood urea nitrogen, creatinine were determined and analyzed by One way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s test. Results: The study result showed that important phytochemicals such as carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannin, alkaloids, glycosides, protein and steroids were found to be present in the extract of M. koenigii. The renal function markers like blood urea nitrogen and ceatinine level were found to be decreased significantly by M. koenigii extract treatment. A significant difference was found to be at P<0.01. Conclusions: The present study reveals the protective role of M. koenigii extract against Cyclophosphamide induced nephrotoxicity.
    12  Effect of tetramethylpyrazin combined with cisplatin on VEGF, KLF4 and ADAMTS1 in lewis lung cancer mice
    Jian-Hua Tang He-Min Zhang Zhi-Hua Zhang Xiu-Long Zhang
    2017, 10(8):874-878. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.08.001
    [Abstract](57) [HTML](0) [PDF 338.88 K](229)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To further explore the function of combine use of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and cisplatin (DDP) in lung carcinoma. Methods: We used the combination drug to treat Lewis lung cancer mice, investigated the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) and A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1(ADAMTS1) and to further explore the inhibitory effects and potential mechanism of TMP combined with DDP on tumor angiogenesis. Results: The tumor growth was suppressed in TMP group, DDP group and TMP combined with DDP group. Furthermore, the weights and volume of tumor, the expression level of VEGF, KLF4 and ADAMTS1 were found significantly changed between experiment group and control group. These findings suggest that TMP with DDP had additional or synergistic effects to inhibit the tumor growth effectively, might be achieved through reducing the expression of angiogenesis promoting factor VEGF and increasing expression of angiogenesis inhibitors KLF4 and ADAMTS1. Conclusion: KLF4 and ADAMTS1 may be synergically involved in the angiogenesis in mouse Lewis lung cancer through the different signal ways.
    13  Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antibacterial activity of essential oils from Etlingera sayapensis A.D. Poulsen & Ibrahim
    Behnam Mahdavi Wan A. Yaacob Laily B. Din
    2017, 10(8):879-886. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.08.006
    [Abstract](126) [HTML](0) [PDF 315.97 K](417)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To report the chemical composition and bioactivity (including antioxidant and antimicrobial activity) of essential oils from the rhizomes, stems, and leaves of Etlingera sayapensis (E. sayapensis) A.D. Poulsen & Ibrahim for the first time. Methods: First, the essential oils were obtained using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Then, the essential oils compositions were identified by chromatography methods including GC-FID and GC-MS. For the next step, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), β-carotene bleaching (BCB), and ferrous ion chelating ability (FIC) were chosen to evaluate the essential oils antioxidant activity. Finally, disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC) was applied to investigate antimicrobial activity of the rhizomes and leaves oils of E. sayapensis against 18 microorganisms. Results: All of the oils contained oxygenated monoterpenes (leaves: 74.18%, stems: 75.60%, and rhizome: 54.61%), The essential oil obtained from leaves contained high amount of carvone (21.38%), cis-carveol (13.49%); The rhizomes oil was rich in linalool formate (25.47%), eugenol (11.84%); and the stems oil was dominated by αα-terpineol (39.86%), linalool formate (30.55%). The leaves oil represented the highest ability in all of the antioxidant activity tests. For antimicrobial activity, the rhizome oil presented more active when compared to leaves oil against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella sonnei, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. Conclusions: The most components of the essential oils belong to oxygenated monoterpenes. Linalool formate, carvone, and α毩-terpineol are found as the most abundant compounds in the oils of the different parts of E. sayapensis. The rhizomes oil can prevent the growth of wide spectrum microorganisms; however, the oils are not highly potent in antioxidant assays.
    14  Effect of retrograde colonic electrical stimulation on colonic transit and stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome
    Xiao-Ri Qin Yan Tan Xiao-Ning Sun
    2017, 10(8):887-892. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.017
    [Abstract](38) [HTML](0) [PDF 297.40 K](221)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the effects of retrograde colonic electrical stimulation (RCES) with trains of short pulses and RCES with long pulses on colonic transit in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rats and to investigate whether stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity could be alleviated by RCES so as to find a valuable new approach for IBS treatment. Methods: A total of 48 male rats were randomly divided into model group and control group. Visceral hypersensitivity model was induced by a 6-day HIS protocol composed of two stressors, restraint stress for 40 min and forced swimming stress for 20 min. The extent of visceral hypersensitivity was quantified by electromyography and abdominal withdrawal reflx scores (AWRs) of colorectal distension (use a balloon) at different pressures. After the modeling, all rats were equipped with electrodes in descending colon for retrograde electrical stimulation and a PE tube for perfusing phenol red saline solution in the ileocecus. After recovering from surgery, RCES with long pulses, RCES with trains of short pulses, and sham RCES were performed in colonic serosa of rats for 40 min in six groups of 8 each, including three groups of visceral hypersensitivity rats and three groups of health rats. Colonic transit was assessed by calculating the output of phenol red from the anus every 10 min for 90 min. Finally, the extent of visceral hypersensitivity will be quantified again in model group. Results: After the 6-day HIS protocol, the HIS rats displayed an increased sensitivity to colorectal distention, compared to control group at different distention pressures (P<0.01). CRES with trains of short pulses and long pulses significantly attenuated the hypersensitive responses to colorectal distention in the HIS rats compared with sham RCES group (P<0.01). The effects of RCES on rats colon transmission: In the IBS rats, the colonic emptying were (77.4 ± 3.4)%, (74.8 ± 2.4)% and (64.2 ± 1.6)% in the sham RCES group, long pulses group and trains of short pulses group at 90 min; In healthy rats, The colonic emptying was (65.2 ± 3.5)%, (63.5 ± 4.0)% and (54.0 ± 2.5)% in the sham RCES group, long pulses group and trains of short pulses group at 90 min.Conclusion: RCES with long pulses and RCES with trains of short pulses can significantly alleviate stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. RCES with trains of short pulses has an inhibitory effect of colonic transit, both in visceral hypersensitivity rats and healthy rats.
    15  Brucellosis: a lymphoma-like presentation
    Marcel Massoud Fouad Kerbage Leony Antoun Ribal Merhi Souheil Hallit Rabih Hallit
    2017, 10(8):893-894. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.025
    [Abstract](56) [HTML](0) [PDF 241.67 K](218)
    Abstract:
    Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic infections worldwide caused by gram negative bacilli of the genus Brucella. It is transmitted to humans by contact with infected animals or derived food products such as unpasteurized milk. Brucellosis’ clinical presentation varies widely from multi-systemic involvement to asymptomatic infection. We present the case of a 52-year-old Lebanese male who was admitted to our hospital with a 3-week history of fever (up to 40 °C), chills, night sweats and abdominal pain. Abdominal CT scan revealed the presence of several mesenteric lymphadenopathies and some retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies. Blood cultures came back positive for Brucella melitensis, and a follow-up CT of the abdomen done after treatment revealed complete resolution of the lymphadenopathies. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of brucellosis presenting as retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymphadenopathies. In endemic areas, the diagnosis of brucellosis should always be raised in front of any long duration fever even in the absence of a typical clinical presentation.

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