Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 13,Issue 1,2020 Table of Contents

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  • 1  The phytochemical and pharmacological properties of artocarpin from Artocarpus heterophyllus
    Nik Nurul Najihah Nik Mat Daud Abdi Wira Septama Nordin Simbak Eldiza Puji Rahmi
    2020, 13(1):1-7. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273567
    [Abstract](163) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.07 M](1087)
    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae) has been traditionally used in treating various diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, malarial fever, inflammation, wound healing and other diseases. Since various bioactive compounds have been found in this plant, this review focuses on the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of a potent bioactive compound artocarpin. Despite its various functions, a mechanistic review on this compound has not been reviewed specifically. Here, pharmacological studies in vitro and in vivo on artocarpin are discussed thoroughly stressing on anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant and antiinflammatory aspects of artocarpin. This review would be beneficial for future study to show the competency of natural products for their therapeutic characteristics.
    2  Prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis B virus among migrant workers in Lombok Island, Indonesia
    Laura Navika Yamani Eva Triani Mochamad Amin Juniastuti Takako Utsumi Soetjipto Nasronudin Yoshihiko Yano Hak Hotta Yoshitake Hayashi Maria Inge Lusida
    2020, 13(1):8-16. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273568
    [Abstract](76) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.48 M](429)
    Objective: To examine the potential risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) spread in Indonesia by migrant workers, based on the molecular characteristics of HBV strains. Methods: Sera collected from migrant workers traveling to their destination countries (pre-migrant workers) and those returning to Indonesia (post-migrant workers) were screened for HBsAg by ELISA, followed by HBV DNA detection by PCR and (sub)genotype/subtype determination according to surface region and whole genome sequencing. Results: Of 87 pre-migrant workers, 15 (17.24%) were HBsAg-positive, whereas 15 (12.10%) of 124 post-migrant workers were HBsAg seropositive. HBV genotype analysis based on the S region showed that HBV-B3/adw2 was predominant (96.15%, 25/26) whereas 3.85% (1/26) of isolates were HBV-C3/adrq+. Whole genome sequencing of selected strains and phylogenetic tree analysis identified subgenotype B7 in three samples previously categorized as subgenotype B3 based on S region analysis, supporting a recent argument that subgenotypes B5/B7/B8/B9 could be considered as a quasi-subgenotype of B3. Conclusions: A high prevalence of HBsAg carriers was detected among migrant workers from Lombok Island, with no significant difference in prevalence between before and after returning to Indonesia. All strains were classified into genotypes common in Indonesia, and the results suggested that migrant workers are not a risk factor for HBV transmission into Indonesia.
    3  Salivary gland antigens of laboratory-bred Phlebotomus sergenti and their immunogenicity in human volunteers in laboratory condition
    Arshad Veysi Ahmad Reza Mahmoudi Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani Yavar Rassi Alireza Zahraei-Ramazani Nasibeh Hosseini-Vasoukolaei Daem Roshani Mahboubeh Fatemi Ali Khamesipour Amir Ahmad Akhavan
    2020, 13(1):17-23. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273569
    [Abstract](51) [HTML](0) [PDF 865.06 K](5)
    Objective: To investigate Phlebotomus (P.) sergenti Parrot, 1917 (Diptera: Psychodidae) salivary gland antigens and their immune response in human. Methods: Human volunteers were exposed to sand flies’ bites in the laboratory, and following each exposure the size of induration was recorded. The mean protein concentration of salivary gland lysate and specific anti-P. sergentisaliva IgG was measured. Sand fly salivary proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and their immunoreactivity was examined by Western blotting assays. Results: Individuals exposed to P. sergenti salivary gland lysate for 8 months showed both antibody and delayed type hypersensitivity responses, although exposure for one month did not provoke any immune responses. The trend of antibody fluctuated during the exposure time and dropped by the end of antigen loading. The mean protein content was (0.36±0.08) μg in each pair salivary glands. Salivary gland lysate showed 11 to 12 major protein bands and 3 to 6 of them were immunoreactive. Conclusions: Our study showed that the salivary gland components of P. sergenti provoked both cellular and humoral immune responses in human. Furthermore, there are some immunogenic proteins in P. sergenti saliva which could be subjected for further investigation as vector-based vaccine candidate/s against anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    4  Indoor spray and windows screens effects on dengue vector density after space spraying in a field trial
    Napadol Sudsom Kuaanan Techato Suwich Thammapalo Nannapat Pruphetkaew Noodchanath Kongchouy Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong Theerakamol Pengsakul
    2020, 13(1):24-30. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273571
    [Abstract](56) [HTML](0) [PDF 838.62 K](412)
    Objective: To demonstrate the effect of indoor spraying and window screens on Aedes aegypti mosquito density after space spraying. Methods: A total of 141 households (the study houses) in six communities of Songkhla City, located in Songkhla Province of southern Thailand, were randomly selected and the adult Ae. aegyptipopulations were assessed pre- and post-insecticide spraying from March to October, 2014. Houses close to (within a 20 m radius) the study houses were analyzed using spatial analysis tools. The Aedes aegypti density in the study houses and house density index were compared with the density in the neighbouring houses, based on three spraying conditions: (i) unsprayed (ii) only outdoor sprayed and (iii) indoor plus outdoor sprayed. Results: Only spraying houses indoors was the most effective (P<0.05). There was insufficient evidence that the source of the increase in the number of mosquitoes in unsprayed houses was due to their migration from neighbouring houses which had been sprayed. However, the study houses without screens on their windows were found to have a likely higher dengue vector population after spraying, but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: In dengue endemic areas, all houses should be fully screened and the number of houses ultra-low volume sprayed indoor plus outdoor should be increased with the cooperation of householders and communities during epidemics.
    5  Sandfly fauna and ecological analysis of Phlebotomus orientalis and Phlebotomus martini in the lowland foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Somali Regional State, southeast Ethiopia
    Araya Gebresilassie Solomon Yared Esayas Aklilu
    2020, 13(1):31-37. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273572
    [Abstract](96) [HTML](0) [PDF 727.66 K](559)
    Objective:To identify the sandfly fauna and analyze ecology of sandfly vector(s) of visceral leishmaniasis in three districts of Somali Regional State, southeast Ethiopia. Methods: Sandflies were collected from four sampling habitats, including indoor, peri-domestic, farm field and mixed forest using light and sticky traps in July 2016, and February and April 2017 in Liben and Dawa zones in the Somali Regional State, southeastern Ethiopia. Results: In total, 4 367 sandfly specimens, belonging to 12 species (three Phlebotomus spp. and nine Sergentomyia spp.) were identified. Phlebotomus (P.) heischi, P. orientalis, and P. martini constituted 45.7%, 31.1%, and 23.1% of the sandfly collection, respectively. There were significant differences in the median number of P. orientalis, and P. martini captured per CDC trap/night between the three sampling districts (P<0.05). In light trap capture, collection habitats had significant effects on the abundance of P. orientalis, and P. martini (P<0.05). More median numbers of P. orientalis, and P. martini species were collected in agricultural fields followed by mixed forest and peri-domestic habitats. P. orientalis and P. martini were caught more in outdoor than indoor habitats, suggesting exophilic behaviour. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the presence of P. orientalis and P. martini are probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in this new focus. The findings of our study will improve the understanding of the dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis transmission and will facilitate the implementation of integrated disease control measures based on ecological knowledge of visceral leishmaniasis vector in Liben and Dawa zones and its surrounding regions.
    6  Orostachys japonicus ethyl acetate fraction suppresses MRSA biofilm formation
    Jae-Hyeon Kim Su-Yeon Han Ji-Hye Kwon Dong-Seok Lee
    2020, 13(1):38-45. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273573
    [Abstract](61) [HTML](0) [PDF 960.35 K](389)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of Orostachys (O.) japonicus, a perennial herbaceous plant of the Family Crassulaceae, on biofilm formed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methods: Powdered O. japonicus was extracted by 95% methanol, concentrated, and then, systematically fractionated with n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and H2O according to polarity. Among them, the flavonoid-rich EtOAc fraction demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity and was used in this study. Using the biofilm inhibition assay, cell-surface attachment assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy, latex agglutination assay, and real time qRT-PCR, we examined whether the EtOAc fraction inhibited the formation of MRSA biofilm. Results: The EtOAc fraction exhibited distinct activity against biofilm formation and cell-surface attachment of MRSA up to 1 mg/mL through down-regulating the expression of mecA gene and the production and agglutination of penicillin-binding protein 2a as solidly observed in biofilm inhibition assay, cell-suface attachment assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy, latex agglutination assay, and real time qRT-PCR analysis. Conclusions: These results suggest that O. japonicus could be utilized as a potential resource for the development of new antibiofilm formation of MRSA and antibacterial agents in the future.
    7  Cryptococcal meningitis with pulmonary cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent patient: A case report
    Kee Tat Lee Kar Ying Yong Hock Hin Chua
    2020, 13(1):46-48. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273574
    [Abstract](126) [HTML](0) [PDF 791.14 K](924)
    Rationale: Cryptococcal infections commonly occur in immunosuppressed patients and are uncommon in immunocompetent persons. Patient concerns: A 32 year old lady, active smoker presented with right chest pain, dry cough and loss of weight. Initial chest radiograph showed a lobulated lung mass in the right lower lobe. She developed headache and right cranial nerve palsy during admission. Various investigations were done including lumbar puncture, brain and chest imaging. Diagnosis: Cryptococcal meningitis with pulmonary cryptococcoma. Interventions: She received five months of effective antifungal treatment; however, the patient did not respond well. Subsequently, removal of pulmonary cryptococcoma was done. Outcomes: Her condition improved and she no longer had any headache. Lessons: Disseminated cryptococcosis is rare in immunocompetent patient. Our case highlights the importance of high index of suspicion and we postulate that lobectomy helped in reducing the cryptococcal burden in her body, thus facilitating better response to antifungal therapy.

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