Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Volume 15,Issue 5,2022 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Viewpoint of Nigerians towards sexual abuse and molestation of children: A call to proper education
    Abdullahi Tunde Aborode Abideen Opeyemi Olasupo Taibat Aduragba Hussain Abayomi Oyeyemi Ajagbe
    2022, 15(5):191-192. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.345948
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 184.63 K](70)
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    2  Emergence of monkeypox: Another concern amidst COVID-19 crisis
    Balamurugan Shanmugaraj Narach Khorattanakulchai Waranyoo Phoolcharoen
    2022, 15(5):193-195. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.346081
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 404.97 K](28)
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    3  New developments in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Rasit Dinc
    2022, 15(5):196-205. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.345944
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 388.33 K](26)
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    Leishmaniasis, including the cutaneous form, poses an important public health threat around the world, while no vaccine is currently available against any form of leishmaniasis. The drugs used in the first line treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are commonly pentavalent antimonials despite their toxicities, long-term treatment duration and increasing resistance rates. Other alternatives are amphotericin B, pentamidine, miltefosine and paromomycine. Movement of the population, especially in endemic regions, increases the spread of the parasite and affectes the distribution of causative species, which requires re-evaluation the treatment regimen. Extensive researches are carried out on the treatment of leishmaniasis. The immunotherapeutic and targeted therapeutic approaches, formulations of carrier-loaded active drugs, local thermotherapeutic applications, the combination of antileishmanial drugs/compounds, the use of new synthetic and natural products are promising therapeutic options in the future. Herein, the author reviews the potential treatment modalities of CL with a brief overview of current treatments in the light of ongoing studies around the world.
    4  Public knowledge, practices and perceptions on typhus fevers in Southern Sri Lanka
    Ashani Liyanage Nilmini Chandrasena Nayana Gunathilaka Ruwan Sanjeewa Ranjan Premaratna
    2022, 15(5):206-212. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.345942
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 407.74 K](26)
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    Objective: To assess public knowledge, practices and perceptions on typhus fevers in Sri Lanka. Methods: A descriptive study was done in four selected typhusprone areas in Southern Sri Lanka. A mixed-method was employed using face-to-face interviews and questionnaire-based surveys among confirmed cases of typhus and at-risk populations, respectively. Frequencies, percentages, and means were used to characterize socio-demography and evaluate disease awareness. Results: The lay terms for typhus fevers reported in the studied region were “peacock fever”, “tick fever” and “bird fever”. A total of 499 subjects participated [mean±SD, (45±16) years] in the questionnaire-based survey, and 13.6% (n=68) reported past experience of typhus fever, 1.2% (n=6) identified the disease as “typhus” while 58.7% (n=293) and 11.8% (n=59) knew it as ‘peacock fever’ and ‘tick fever’, respectively. The etiological agent was unknown to 95.2% (n=475), but 53.5% ((n=267) were aware that it was vector-borne. Fever (57.3%, n=286), eschar (35.7%, n=178), headache (22.0%, n=267) and myalgia (19.2%, n=96) were identified as key symptoms. Past disease experience was significantly associated with higher awareness of the main disease symptoms (fever: χ2=15.713, P<0.001; headache: χ2=19.447, P<0.001; lymphadenopathy: Fisher’s exact test, P=0.023; eschar: χ2=12.049, P<0.001). None knew of any disease prevention methods. Participants with a past history of typhus fever had sought treatment at state hospitals (55.9%, 38/68) and private sector hospitals (5.9%, 4/68). Conclusions: Public awareness on preventive practices for typhus fevers was rare among the participants though vector-borne aspect was known to many. Clinical disease awareness was deficient among those without past experience of typhus fever. Community sensitization on vector avoidance strategies is highly recommended.
    5  Pulse oximeter as a home assessment tool: Knowledge and user experience among the community in Malaysia during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Siew-Keah Lee Jin Wei Ma Khai Ying Chan Yi Song Cheong Wan Ting Hong Regine Chew Yi Ong Wei Cheng Tay Ang-Lim Chua
    2022, 15(5):213-219. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.345941
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 292.89 K](31)
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    Objective: To determine the degree of knowledge in the usage of pulse oximeter as a home assessment tool among the community in Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2021. The questionnaire assessed the knowledge in using pulse oximeters, user experience and opinions in using pulse oximeter as a home assessment tool during the pandemic. Results: A total of 504 respondents were included in the study, and the mean score in knowledge related to application of pulse oximetry was 73.00%, while the mean score in knowledge related to factors affecting pulse oximetry readings was only 38.51%. A total of 90.5% of the respondents recognised normal pulse rate and 88.5% knew the blood oxygen saturation levels of a healthy adult, while 69.4% recognised the definition of silent hypoxia. In addition, the majority of the respondents agreed that factors such as poor blood circulation (71.2%), excessive movements (69.8%), and hand position (60.7%) affected oximetry readings. However, 61.7%, 81.7%, 77.2% and 76.8% of the respondents could not identify nail polish, skin colour, skin thickness and tattoos as factors that may affect oximetry readings respectively. Conclusions: The respondents showed a satisfactory level of knowledge related to application of pulse oximetry, but a poor level of knowledge related to factors affecting pulse oximetry readings among the community in Malaysia. Continuous efforts in educating the community on the correct use of pulse oximeters are crucial for appropriate home assessment and avoiding unnecessary stress.
    6  Ficus carica hairy roots: In vitro anti-leishmanial activity against Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes
    Shahla Amani Shahram Khademvatan Mehdi Mohebodini Morad Jafari Vinod Kumar
    2022, 15(5):220-229. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.345945
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 839.40 K](24)
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    Objective: To investigate the biochemical capacity, and in vitro inhibitory effects of hairy roots from two cultivars of Ficus carica L. (Sabz and Siah) on Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes. Methods: In the hairy roots, the activity of antioxidant enzymes compared to normal leaves and roots, and the presence of some phenolic compounds in comparison with fruits were investigated. The IC50 values of hairy roots in promastigotes was determined by tetrazolium-dye 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and trypan blue assays. By calculating the infectivity index of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the leishmanicidal activity (IC50 values) of hairy roots for amastigotes was estimated. The effects of hairy roots (IC50 values) treatment on the levels of IFN-γ and iNOS expression, intracellular reactive oxygen species, and iNOS protein expression in infected-PBMCs were determined. Results: Based on antioxidant enzyme assays and high performance liquid chromatography analysis, hairy roots exhibited high antioxidant capacity and contained high levels of phenolic compounds. According to the results of tetrazolium-dye 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and trypan blue assays, the hairy root extracts of both cultivars showed considerable dose-dependent inhibitory effects against Leishmania major promastigotes. Depending on the concentration and exposure time, treatment of infected-PBMCs with hairy root extracts caused the generation of a significant reactive oxygen species, upregulation of IFN-γ and iNOS genes expression, and high value of iNOS protein compared to controls. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the hairy roots of Ficus carica can be considered as a promising natural source of antileishmanial agents.
    7  Decline of Japanese encephalitis in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India, 2009-2019
    Neha Srivastava Hirawati Deval Nikhat Khan Rajni Kant Aparup Das
    2022, 15(5):230-231. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.345940
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 252.39 K](27)
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    8  Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets, captive non-human primates and farm animals in Central Africa
    Gael D. Maganga Barthélémy Ngoubangoye Jumafra P. Koumba Sonia Lekana-Douki Ivan C. Moussadji Kinga Thierry A. Tsoumbou Antoine M. Mbeang Beyeme Telstar G. Ndong Mebaley Jean-Bernard Lekana-Douki
    2022, 15(5):232-235. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.345947
    [Abstract](0) [HTML](0) [PDF 274.02 K](66)
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    9  Using twitter and web news mining to predict the monkeypox outbreak
    Kia Jahanbin
    2022, 15(5):236-238. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.346083
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 419.55 K](24)
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