Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Issue 10,2023 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Malaria slide bank plays a crucial role in achieving and sustaining malaria elimination in India
    Shrikant Nema Nitika Nitika Anup R Anvikar Praveen K Bharti
    2023(10):431-433. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.388384
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 663.46 K](27)
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    2  Insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Malaysia (2010 to 2022): A review
    Sabar Nurul-Nastasea Ke-Xin Yu Ahmad Rohani Mohamed Nor Zurainee Tengku Idzzan Nadzirah Tengku-Idris Roza Dianita Masse Rezki Sabrina Wan Mohamad Ali Wan Najdah
    2023(10):434-445. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.378561
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.06 M](65)
    Abstract:
    This review aimed to determine the prevalence of the insecticide resistance status of the field-collected Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Malaysia from 2010 to 2022 towards carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates and pyrethroids. Biological and environmental controls were summarized with an emphasis on the mosquito vector control strategies in Malaysia. The information in this review was extracted from several databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct and Scopus by using keywords including “insecticide resistance”, “carbamate resistance”, “organochlorine resistance”, “organophosphate resistance”, “pyrethroid resistance”, “Aedes” and “Malaysia”, between January 2022 and December 2022. Distribution of resistant Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Malaysia was mapped using QGIS software. Insecticide resistance in both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus is widespread in Malaysia, although the rates vary by states. The most notable was the steep increase in permethrin resistance of Ae. aegypti in Selangor, Malaysia, over the past decade. Ae. albopictus also displayed moderate resistance to permethrin, though not as widespread as Ae. aegypti in Selangor, but showed sign of resistance in Sarawak, East Malaysia. Resistance towards four main classes of insecticides have been widely documented in Malaysia. The extensive resistance towards permethrin in Malaysia which is one of the current insecticides used in Malaysia suggested that policies supporting the widespread use of permethrin fogging needs further evaluation.
    3  South Asian dairy smallholders: A scoping review of practices and zoonoses
    Emily Schembri Angus J D Campbell Juan Pablo Villanueva-Cabezas
    2023(10):446-452. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.388029
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 421.28 K](25)
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    Objective: To identify and discuss on-farm management practices linked to bacterial zoonosis risk in smallholder dairy farmers in South Asia. Methods: This scoping review was conducted as per the PRISMAScR guidelines. Five hundred and two publications were retrieved from five online databases using a comprehensive search strategy. Studies were selected if they discussed a farm management practice which impacted human health within a South Asian country. Results: Twenty-two studies were included. Seven management practices relevant to farmers, livestock and their shared environment were identified including raw milk consumption, farm hygiene management, personal protective equipment uses, animal vaccination, cleaning udders, hand washing and disposal of afterbirth materials. Preventive practices were found to be utilized at lower frequencies compared to risk increasing practices. Awareness of bacterial zoonoses is particularly low within the region. Conclusions: Based on the results of this review, it was determined that improving farmer awareness of bacterial zoonotic diseases may favor several of the presented leverage points within the South Asian smallholder dairy system. Relying on formal school education to improve this awareness may not solve this problem, instead, more focus on accessible and affordable zoonoses education and farming programs is required.
    4  Impact of H1N1, H7N9, ASFV, dengue virus and COVID-19 on pharmaceutical manufacturing firms' R&D investments and economic consequences: Evidence from China
    Jie Liu Wanqing Zheng Zhen Liu Xiujing Jiang
    2023(10):453-462. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.386256
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 457.34 K](26)
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    Objective: To determine the impact of major disease epidemics on pharmaceutical manufacturing firms' Research & Development (R&D) investments and economic consequences. Methods: The sample consists of 1 582 firm-year observations from 2009 to 2022 in China, of which, 26.6% of pharmaceutical companies are involved in the diagnosis and treatment of prevalent diseases. Linear models using R&D investments, patent applications, operating performances and stock returns as dependent variables are constructed separately to examine the response of pharmaceutical companies to disease epidemics and the resulting economic consequences. Results: The prevalence of five major diseases led to a 17.5% increase in the amount of R&D investment and an 87.8% rise in the ratio of R&D investment to total assets by disease-related pharmaceutical companies, compared to unrelated pharmaceutical companies. Further evidence indicated that the patent applications for disease-related firms increased by 44.3% relative to unrelated firms after the epidemics. Though the impacts of the epidemics on firms’ operating performances were insignificant in the short term, a major disease epidemic was associated with an increase in stock returns of 67.4% and 44.6%, respectively, as measured by the capital asset pricing model and Fama-French five-factor model. Additional analysis revealed that the impacts of the epidemics on R&D investments and patent applications were more pronounced for nonstate- owned enterprises than state-owned enterprises. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that disease-related pharmaceutical firms respond to the disease epidemics through increasing R&D investment. More patent applications and higher market value are the main gains from the firms’ increased investments in R&D following the epidemic, rather than the improvements of short-term operating performances.
    5  Risk estimation of chronic kidney disease in a leptospirosis endemic area: A casecontrol study from south Andaman Islands of India
    Ambreen Fatema Manjunatha Ramu Paluru Vijayachari
    2023(10):463-471. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.388385
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 382.35 K](66)
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    Objective: To estimate the risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with leptospirosis. Methods: All reported (41 890) and later confirmed leptospirosis (1 990) cases from 2010-2020 were traced by universal sampling. 386 Laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis cases were enrolled and 413 age, gender, area, and occupation matched healthy persons were included as controls. Variables including socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, and health-related behaviours were compared between the two groups and association between these variables and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was analyzed with multiple linear regression. Results: The median of eGFR was 49.0 (27.0, 75.0) mL/min/1.73 m2 in the cases and 96.0 (72.0, 121.0) mL/min/1.73 m2 in the controls, showing significant differences (P<0.001). Bivariate analysis showed that leptospirosis seropositivitiy, repeat leptospirosis infection, diabetes, male gender, working in field (sun exposure), COVID-19 infection and smoking had statistically significant association with reduced eGFR. Leptospirosis seropositivity had negative effects on eGFR. Multiple linear regression confirmed that leptospirosis seropositivity had negative effects on eGFR (unstandardised β coefficients= −30.86, 95% CI −49.7 to −11.9, P<0.001). Conclusions: Chronic kidney disease is a complex disease with multiple risk factors involved. Exposure to leptospirosis is one of the essential factors in accelerating its progression.
    6  Aeromonas hydrophila infection in acute myeloid leukemia: A case report
    Rui He Siqi Zhong Jinghua Fan
    2023(10):472-475. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.388389
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 474.65 K](24)
    Abstract:
    Rationale: Aeromonas hydrophila, a bacterium commonly found in a variety of soils, aquatic habitats, and other natural environments, is known for causing infections and hemorrhagic diseases in both aquatic and terrestrial animals. Patients with leukemia, when infected by Aeromonas hydrophila following chemotherapy, face an increased risk of developing necrotizing fasciitis. Patient concerns: A 48-year-old male with a history of acute myeloid leukemia presented with swelling and pain in his right hand after being stabbed by a grass carp two days ago. The injury occurred on the fifth day after his last chemotherapy session when he was accidentally punctured in the right thumb and ring finger by a carp while fishing. Two days following the injury, the skin isurrounding the wound turned black immediately, while the rest of his hand was reddened, swollen, and bleeding. Diagnosis: Aeromonas hydrophila infection in the soft tissue of the right hand. Interventions: Intravenous antibiotics and local debridement. Outcomes: The patient experienced an alleviation of systemic poisoning symptoms, effective control of the local wound infection. Lessons: It is important for physicians to appreciate the potential for highly unusual and life-threatening infections in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can prevent the development of necrotizing fasciitis and save patients’ lives.
    7  Protection against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection during the second wave among individuals with pre-existing binding antibodies to SARS-CoV-2: A population-based study from Puducherry, India
    Premkumar Ramasubramani Dhanajayan Govindan Nandini Balakrishnan Krishnan Tamilarasu Kadhiravan Sitanshu Sekhar Kar
    2023(10):476-478. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.380727
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 263.36 K](27)
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