Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Issue 9,2023 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Snakebite: A neglected tropical disease that can stymie progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals
    Saurabh Bhargava
    2023(9):383-384. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.383909
    [Abstract](0) [HTML](0) [PDF 192.00 K](40)
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    2  Elimination of lymphatic filariasis: Where do we stand so far?
    Aashna Sinha Sudhashekhar Kumar Deen Daya Vaishali Yadav Atreyi Pramanik Kundan Kumar Chaubey Sanjay Kumar?
    2023(9):385-399. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.380729
    [Abstract](0) [HTML](0) [PDF 658.75 K](41)
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    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), an asymptomatic, acute, and chronic condition in human beings, is the second most common vector-borne disease after malaria. According to the World Health Organization, there are 120 million LF cases detected in 81 tropical and subtropical countries, and one billion people are at risk. Therefore, the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched in 2000, with the primary objective of stopping LF transmission among all at-risk groups using mass drug administration (MDA), managing morbidities, and preventing LF-related impairments using a minimum treatment package. Additionally, other programs such as epidemiological assessment including National Filaria Control Program and World Health Organization recommended routine and pre-MDA microfilaremia surveys also implemented to stop the LF transmission. The routine filaria surveys were also carried out in around 2 000-4 000 individuals/month throughout the year whereas pre-MDA surveys were also conducted every year in approximately 4 000 individuals in four fixed and four random sites. Furthermore, the Transmission Assessment Survey was also conducted to check the risk of LF among primary school children. Moreover, potential diagnostic methods, systematic surveillance regimes, the Direct Network Report system, and regular trainings and awareness may be also effective in preventing the recurrence of LF. Hence, this review emphasizes the potential advocacy tools and various strategies as well as procedures for monitoring, which could be impactful in eliminating LF.
    3  Attitudes and understanding of complementary and alternative medicine in cancer care: An exploratory study of patients’ perspectives in Karachi, Pakistan
    Shahlla Imam Muneeba Aijaz Wajiha Iffat Shazia Qasim Jamshed Nahlah Elkudssiah Ismail Ganesh Sritheran Paneerselvam Khang Wen Goh Long Chiau Ming Halima Sadia Iqbal Azhar
    2023(9):400-408. DOI: 4103/1995-7645.386075
    [Abstract](0) [HTML](0) [PDF 354.45 K](42)
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    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities among patients with cancer in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2021 to December 2021. Five hundred patients with cancer were invited to participate in the study. Electronic databases, namely, Google scholar, Publons, EMBASE, PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, and ResearchGate was used for questionnaire designed. The self-administered survey included questions on demographic characteristics, education level, socio-economic conditions and information about CAM therapies, prevalence, effectiveness, and common CAM modalities. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS software version 22. Results: Out of the 500 invited patients, 433 (86.6%) successfully completed and returned the questionnaires. In contrast to patients who were with younger, highly educated, professionally active, higher income, and had advanced cancer, time since diagnosis, type of treatment, cancer types and family history are significantly associated with CAM use. The results showed that 59.8% of the participants were acquainted with complementary and/or alternative medicine and considered safe owing to its natural ingredients. The prevalence of CAM usage among cancer patients was 40.9% and the most widely used CAM modality was herbal medicine (27.7%) and dietary supplements (28.8%). Patients used CAM as a complementary therapy to improve the morphological parameter (28.2%), strengthen the immune system (6.8%), and to decrease the side effects of conventional treatment (18.1%). Most of the respondents get the information regarding CAM therapy from the electronic media (43.2%) and the family members (48%) rather than healthcare personnel. Conclusions: Participants used CAM modalities along with the conventional health care practices. Further multicentre studies should be conducted to provide information regarding the usage of CAM therapies and their eventual benefits in patients with cancer.
    4  Public satisfaction with the quality of First Health Facility Services in Indonesia: Does sociodemographic matter?
    Zainul Khaqiqi Nantabah Rofingatul Mubasyiroh Antonius Yudi Kristanto Lely Indrawati Astridya Paramita Dwi Hapsari Tjandrarini Agung Dwi Laksono
    2023(9):409-417. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.386257
    [Abstract](0) [HTML](0) [PDF 397.36 K](93)
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    Objective: To investigate individual characteristics related to satisfaction with the quality of First Health Facility Services (FHFS) in Indonesia. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzes national representation data. Meanwhile, the study involved 9 846 representative respondents in 2019. Respondent’s satisfaction with FHFS based on the five dimensions of service quality (SERVQUAL) is a dependent variable. Independent variables consist of sex, marital status, age, education, employment, insurance ownership, and economics. The study used multivariate logistic regression to explain the relationship between individual characteristics and FSHS quality. Results: 77.3% Respondents were satisfied with FHFS, with the highest order of satisfaction dimensions being assurance (59.4%), empathy (57.3%), reliability (53.6%), responsiveness (52.7%), and then tangibility (49.1%). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that divorce was 1.48 more likely than never-married to be satisfied (95% CI 1.17-1.87). Employees were 0.77 less likely than the unemployed to get satisfied (95% CI 0.70-0.86). Respondents with higher education was 0.82 less likely than those with primary education to be satisfied (95% CI 0.67-0.99). Meanwhile, respondents who had government-run insurance were 1.61 more likely than uninsured to be satisfied (95% CI 1.42-1.80). Moreover, the rich were 0.82 less likely than the poor to get satisfied (95% CI 0.73-0.92). Conclusions: Community satisfaction with FHFS is generally high, though some areas could be improved. Demographic factors are still strongly related to satisfaction ratings. The government can assess the quality of services in accordance with standards and disseminate information about service standards for primary facilities to all levels of society, ensuring that service satisfaction is rated as good by all groups.
    5  Efficacy and safety of Lianhuaqingwen capsules in high-risk common type COVID-19 pneumonia: A multicenter retrospective study
    Bin Liu Liang Li Lei Liu Min Ye Wei Zhang Xiangdong Zhou Qi Li
    2023(9):418-424. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.386076
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 385.99 K](179)
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    Objective: To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of Lianhuaqingwen (LHQW) capsules in patients with high-risk common type COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: A retrospective multicenter study on 383 high-risk common type COVID-19 pneumonia cases was conducted. Patients were categorized as the standard treatment (SDT) group (n=168) and the LHQW+SDT group (n=215). The primary endpoint was the rate of symptom (fever, fatigue, coughing) recovery and the secondary endpoints included the time to symptom recovery, the proportion of patients with improvement in chest CT images, the proportion of patients with clinical cure, the timing and rate of negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA assay. Results: The recovery rate was significantly higher in the LHQW+SDT group as compared with the SDT group (89.7% vs. 72.0%, P<0.01). The combined use of LHQW+SDT also showed shorter time for symptom recovery, as well as shorter time for individual symptom of fever, fatigue and coughing recovery than use of SDT alone. A higher proportion of patients in the LHQW+SDT group with improvements in chest CT images and clinical cure (77.7% vs. 57.1%, P<0.01) but the proportion of patients deteriorating to severe cases (1% vs. 25%, P<0.01) in this group was significant lower than those in the SDT group. No significant difference in negative conversion rate of viral assay results was observed (76.8% vs. 75.0%, P>0.05). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions: LHQW capsules could be recommended to ameliorate clinical symptoms and reduce the rate of deteriorating to severe cases for high-risk common type COVID-19 pneumonia.
    6  Type 2 reaction associated sensorineural hearing loss in a drug resistant lepromatous leprosy patient: A case report
    Harpreet Singh Pawar Itu Singh Harish Kumar Sagar
    2023(9):425-427. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.386077
    [Abstract](0) [HTML](0) [PDF 251.10 K](41)
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    Rationale: Leprosy, a chronic granulomatous disease often present clinically as erythema nodosum leprosum, a type 2 reaction. The involvement of cochlear part of audiovestibular system is a rarity. Patient concerns: A 26-year-old male patient with lepromatous leprosy developed bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) during type 2 reactional episode. Diagnosis: Recurrent erythema nodosum leprosum in rifampicin-resistant lepromatous leprosy. Interventions: Corticosteroids and second-line multidrug therapy. Outcomes:The patient improved significantly and was further referred for management of psychosocial impact due to sensorineural hearing loss. Lessons: The hearing impairment is a rare complication of type 2 reaction. Any patient with suspected cranial nerve involvement should essentially be screened by tuning fork tests for early detection of hearing impairment and offer timely intervention as required. All high bacteriological index cases should be investigated for antimicrobial resistance in high endemic areas.
    7  A simple and purification-free nucleic acid extraction method for rapid diagnosis of malaria
    Lee Phone Youth Zen Meng Yee Lai Mohd Hafizi Abdul Hamid Jenarun Jelip Rose Nani Mudin Noor Hafizan Bt Mat Salleh Netty Darwina Dawam Nirzayanna Eyan Abdul Ajak Mohd Ashrin Afiq Bin Zainudin Yee Ling Lau
    2023(9):428-430. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.345946
    [Abstract](0) [HTML](0) [PDF 239.35 K](41)
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