Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

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  • 1  Epitope finding in 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV): The first world report
    Beuy Joob Viroj Wiwanitkit
    . DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.277515
    [Abstract](435) [HTML](0) [PDF 610.35 K](2558)
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    2  Annona muricata fruit extract protects against diethylnitrosamineinduced hepatocellular cancer in rats
    Subin Varghese Thomas John Paul Akhila Hosur Shrungeswara Subhankar Biswas AartiAbhishek Shah Chandrashekar Kodangala Subraya Yogendra Nayak
    2019, 12(6):272-282. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.261273
    [Abstract](364) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.33 M](1132)
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    Objective: To evaluate the anticancer potentials of Annona muricata fruit by in vitro and in vivo methods. Methods: The ethanolic extract of Annona muricata fruit was prepared by Soxhlet extraction method and further fractionated with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, scratch wound assay, and cell cycle analysis. IC50, apoptotic index and percentage cell migration were determined using HepG2 cells. For the in vivo studies, hepatocellular carcinoma was induced by administering 0.01% diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in drinking water in Wistar rats. In pre-treatment, rats were co-administered 200 mg/kg of fruit extract with DEN for 14 weeks. In post-treatment, the extract was co-administered after 8-weeks of DEN-induction for 14 weeks. Liver function test, haematological test, oxidative stress markers, relative liver weight, number of cancer nodules and histopathological parameters were determined. Results: Annona muricata fruit extract =significantly lowered cell proliferation counts. The chloroform-fraction possessed higher activity [IC50=(53.7±4.3) μg/mL]. The chloroform fraction inhibited cell migration, which was significant compared to curcumin. Further investigations regarding the mode of anticancer activity revealed that the chloroform fraction induced apoptosis. The cell cycle analysis indicated that cells were being arrested at G0/G1. In the in vivo studies, the DEN-control group showed a significant decrease in body weights with increased mortality rate, hepatic nodules, and impairment of liver function compared to normal rats. The rats pre-treated and post-treated with the extract showed positive results with significant improvement in the parameters that were adversely affected by DEN. In addition, other adverse effects of DEN, such as blood dyscrasias and hepatic endogenous antioxidant, were significantly attenuated by Annona muricata fruit extract. Conclusions: The Annona muricata fruit extract has anticancer activity when tested by in vitro and in vivo hepatocellular cancer models.
    3  Imported cases of 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections in Thailand: Mathematical modelling of the outbreak
    Pathum Sookaromdee Viroj Wiwanitkit
    . DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.277516
    [Abstract](277) [HTML](0) [PDF 608.76 K](2437)
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    4  Annona muricata fruit extract protects against diethylnitrosamineinduced hepatocellular cancer in rats
    Ines Sifaoui Carmen M Martín-Navarro Atteneri López-Arencibia María Reyes-Batlle Basilio Valladares José E. Pi?ero Sutherland K Maciver Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
    2019, 12(6):283-287. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.261287
    [Abstract](206) [HTML](0) [PDF 823.36 K](1146)
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    Objective: To evaluate the combination of several statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin and simvastatin) and azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole) against Acanthamoeba spp. Methods: The efficiency of the different drug combinations against the trophozoite stage of different Acanthamoeba strains were evaluated by Alamar Blue assay. Effect on the cyst stage was observed by inverted microscope. Cytotoxicity of combinations of azoles and statins was evaluated by measuring the release of lactate dehydrogenase from a murine macrophage cell line. Results: Combinations of any of the tested statins and voriconazole or posaconazole were more efficient in inhibiting Acanthamoeba compared to statins or azoles individually. The drug combinations at the combined inhibitory concentrations 50% showed lower toxicity compared to that of the compounds alone. Conclusions: The combinations of statins together with voriconazole and posaconazole are more efficient than these drugs alone, and these combinations have lower cytotoxicity in mammalian cell lines.
    5  Unlocking the in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of halophyte plants from the southern Portugal
    Marta Oliveira Policarpo Ademar Sales Junior Maria Jo?o Rodrigues Marina DellaGreca Luísa Barreira Silvane Maria Fonseca Murta Alvaro José Romanha Luísa Custódio
    2016, 9(8):714-719. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.015
    [Abstract](198) [HTML](0) [PDF 679.23 K](438)
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    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) activity of organic extracts prepared from halophyte species collected in the southern coast of Portugal (Algarve), and chemically characterize the most active samples. Methods: Acetone, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were prepared from 31 halophyte species and tested in vitro against trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of the Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi. The most active extract was fractionated by preparative HPLC-DAD, affording 11 fractions. The most selective fraction was fully characterized by 1H-NMR. Results: From 94 samples tested, one was active, namely the root dichloromethane extract of Juncus acutus (IC50 < 20 μg/mL). This extract was fractionated by HPLC, affording 11 fractions, one of them containing only a pure compound (juncunol), and tested for anti-parasitic activity. Fraction 8 (IC50 = 4.1 μg/mL) was the most active, and was further characterized by 1H-NMR. The major compounds were phenanthrenes, 9,10dihydrophenanthrenes and benzocoumarins. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the compounds identified in fraction 8 are likely responsible for the observed anti parasitic activity. Further research is in progress aiming to isolate and identify the specific active molecules. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the in vitro anti T. cruzi activity of halophyte species.
    6  Molecular identification of hemoplasmas in free ranging non-human primates in Thailand
    Parut Suksai Supakarn Kaewchot Piya Sereerak Sirinan Boonnan Bongkotchamat Phimsin Taksina Jaruwattananon Kacharin Raschasin Mutchamon Kaewparuehaschai Sorraya Siriphet Benjaporn Bhusri
    2019, 12(8):375-379. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262566
    [Abstract](166) [HTML](0) [PDF 822.10 K](1387)
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    Objective: To survey hemoplasmas infection in free ranging non-human primates from 8 provinces in Thailand. Methods: DNA from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood of 262 free ranging non-human primates were identified as hemoplasmas using PCR and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and rnpB genes. Results: A total of 148 non-human primates (56.49%) were determined positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque, including 125 Macaca fascicularis and 23 Macaca mulatta. Hemoplasmas can cause anemia in monkey but all positive samples were healthy. The positive rates in male and female non-human primates were not significantly different. Conclusions: Candidatus Mycoplasma infection is prevalent in free ranging Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta in Thailand.
    7  Humidity that is appropriate for Zika virus infection: A summary from Thai cases
    Beuy Joob Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2016, 9(7):700-700. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.05.016
    [Abstract](164) [HTML](0) [PDF 578.01 K](361)
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    In the present day, Zika virus infection is a big problem in medicine. As a mosquito borne infectious disease, the climate parameters including humidity can affect the disease suitability. However, there is no previous data on the appropriate humidity level that can promote Zika virus infection. Here, the authors analyze the data on humidity where the Zika infections are detected in Thailand and found that the average humidity is equal to (66.14%±19.86%), which is the level that can be seen in several areas of the world including to non-tropical countries. This implies that there is a possible risk of Zika virus infection in the non-tropical country with appropriate humidity level.
    8  The phytochemical and pharmacological properties of artocarpin from Artocarpus heterophyllus
    Nik Nurul Najihah Nik Mat Daud Abdi Wira Septama Nordin Simbak Eldiza Puji Rahmi
    2020, 13(1):1-7. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273567
    [Abstract](163) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.07 M](1087)
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    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae) has been traditionally used in treating various diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, malarial fever, inflammation, wound healing and other diseases. Since various bioactive compounds have been found in this plant, this review focuses on the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of a potent bioactive compound artocarpin. Despite its various functions, a mechanistic review on this compound has not been reviewed specifically. Here, pharmacological studies in vitro and in vivo on artocarpin are discussed thoroughly stressing on anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant and antiinflammatory aspects of artocarpin. This review would be beneficial for future study to show the competency of natural products for their therapeutic characteristics.
    9  Laboratory diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni: Current status and future trends
    Amira Taman Samar N. El-Beshbishi
    2019, 12(6):243-249. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.261270
    [Abstract](162) [HTML](0) [PDF 687.99 K](1371)
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    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects about 290 million patients worldwide. Children aged between 5 and 14 years represent 45.8% of the affected patients, in addition, schistosomiasis has been reported in Schistosoma-free areas, mostly because of tourism and immigration from endemic countries. Intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni is mainly diagnosed via direct stool examination for egg detection. Immunological methods are favoured for disease monitoring and preliminary checking for communities in areas with low infection rates, and for patients with light and chronic infections where parasitological tests are negative. PCR-based diagnostic techniques are more sensitive, but expensive. Tegument proteins and miRNAs are promising markers for diagnosis of schistosomiasis. Here we review the diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis mansoni aiming to reach a standardized technique for diagnosis of early infection to help better control of the disease.
    10  In vitro anti-hydatic and immunomodulatory effects of ginger and [6]gingerol
    Manel Amri Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
    2016, 9(8):727-734. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.013
    [Abstract](151) [HTML](0) [PDF 913.66 K](426)
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    Objective: To study in vitro anti-hydatic and immunomodulatory effects of ginger and [6]gingerol as an alternative therapy for Cystic echinococcosis. Methods: Effect of a commonly used herbal product and ginger (Zingiber officinale) towards protoscoleces (PSC) and cyst wall in vitro was studied. The effect of [6]-gingerol, and the pungent constituent of ginger, was also evaluated on PSC culture. Furthermore, the activity of both extracts in association with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) on PSC co-cultured with mononuclear cells of hydatic patients was evaluated. The nitric oxide (NO) production was measured in each co-culture. Results: Ginger exhibited a concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect against PSC and cyst wall. Interestingly, ginger was more effective than the [6]-gingerol. Moreover, additional parasitic effect between extracts and IFN-γ are also observed in co-cultures. Furthermore, both extracts attenuated the NO production elicited by this infection or by the IFN-γ. Conclusions: Ginger has an important anti-hydatic effect in vitro. This effect is amplified in the presence of IFN-γ. Moreover, this herbal product may protect against host’s cell death by reducing the high levels of NO. Ginger may act, at least, through the [6]-gingerol. All our data suggest the promising use of ginger in the treatment of Echinococcus granulosus infection.
    11  Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo immunostimulatory activities of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles loaded with soluble and autoclaved Leishmania infantum antigens: A novel vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniasis
    Emrah Sefik Abamor Adil Allahverdiyev Ozlem Ayse Tosyali Melahat Bagirova Tayfun Acar Zeynep Mustafaeva Serap Derman
    2019, 12(8):353-364. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262564
    [Abstract](149) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.09 M](1940)
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    Objective: To prepare and characterize poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with soluble leishmanial antigen or autoclaved leishmanial antigen and explore in vitro and in vivo immunogenicity of antigen encapsulated nanoparticles. Methods: Water/oil/water double emulsion technique was employed to synthesize PLGA nanoparticles, and scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Zeta-potential measurements were used to identify the characteristics of nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of synthetized nanoparticles on J774 macrophage were investigated by MTT assays. To determine the in vitro immunostimulatory efficacies of nanoparticles, griess reaction and ELISA was used to measure the amounts of NO and cytokines. During the in vivo analysis, Balb/c mice were immunized with vaccine formulations, and protective properties of nanoparticles were measured by Leishman Donovan unit in the liver following the infection. Cytokine levels in spleens of mice were determined by ELISA. Results: MTT assay showed that neither soluble leishmanial antigen nor autoclaved leishmanial antigen encapsulated nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity against J774 macrophage cells. Contrary to free antigens, both autoclaved leishmanial antigen-nanoparticle and soluble leishmanial antigen-nanoparticle formulations led to a 10 and 16-fold increase in NO amounts by macrophages, respectively. Leishman Donovan unit calculations revealed that soluble leishmanial antigen-nanoparticles and autoclaved leishmanial antigen-nanoparticles yielded 52% and 64% protection against visceral leishmaniasis in mouse models. Besides, in vitro and in vivo tests demonstrated that by increasing IFN-γand IL-12 levels and inhibiting IL-4 and IL- 10 secretions, autoclaved leishmanial antigen-nanoparticles and soluble leishmanial antigennanoparticles triggered Th1 immune response. Conclusions: Both autoclaved leishmanial antigen-nanoparticles and soluble leishmanial antigen-nanoparticles formulations provide exceptional in vitro and in vivo immunostimulatory activities. Hence, PLGA-based antigen delivery systems are recommended as potential vaccine candidates against visceral leishmaniasis.
    12  Molecular epidemiology and phylogeny of Nipah virus infection: A mini review
    Silvia Angeletti Alessandra Lo Presti Eleonora Cella Massimo Ciccozzi
    2016, 9(7):610-615. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.05.012
    [Abstract](148) [HTML](0) [PDF 656.54 K](411)
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    Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae, characterized by high pathogenicity and endemic in South Asia. It is classified as a Biosafety Level-4 (BSL-4) agent. The case-fatality varies from 40%-70% depending on the severity of the disease and on the availability of adequate healthcare facilities. At present no antiviral drugs are available for NiV disease and the treatment is just supportive. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses can be used to help in understanding the epidemiology and the temporal origin of this virus. This review provides an overview of evolutionary studies performed on Nipah viruses circulating in different countries. Thirty phylogenetic studies have been published from 2000 to 2015 years, searching on pub-med using the key words ‘Nipah virus AND phylogeny’ and twenty-eight molecular epidemiological studies from 2006 to 2015 have been performed,typing the key words ‘Nipah virus AND molecular epidemiology Overall data from the published study demonstrated as phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis represent promising tools to evidence NiV epidemics, to study their origin and evolution and finally to act with effective preventive measure.
    13  Impact of seasonality on the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia lamblia infections among the aborigines
    Samseh Abdullah Noradilah Norhayati Moktar Ii Li Lee Fatmah Md Salleh Tengku Shahrul Anuar
    2019, 12(7):315-320. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262075
    [Abstract](145) [HTML](0) [PDF 656.99 K](1031)
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    Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia (G.) lamblia infections among the aboriginal community during the wet and dry seasons. Methods: A total of 473 stool samples from the aborigines in Temerloh, Pahang, Malaysia were collected during wet (n=256) and dry seasons (n=217). Smear of all the PVA-preserved stool samples were subjected to Trichrome staining and microscopic examination under 1 000 × magnification (Nikon eclipse E100) for the detection of G. lamblia. Positivity was recorded based on the presence of G. lamblia in trophozoite and/or cyst forms. Results: The prevalence of giardiasis was 12.10% and 8.29% during the wet and dry season, respectively. Age of less or equal to 15 years old and presence of other family members with G. lamblia infection were found to be the significant risk factors to acquire G. lamblia infections during both seasons. Untreated water supply was the significant risk factor of giardiasis during the dry season. This study highlighted the possibility of anthroponotic transmission of G. lamblia during both seasons and waterborne transmission during the dry season in the aboriginal community. Conclusions: This study suggests that seasonal variation plays an important role in the prevalence and risk factor of G. lamblia infection in the aboriginal community. Therefore, close contact with Giardia-infected family members and water-related activities or usage of untreated water must be avoided to reduce the burden of G. lamblia infection in this community.
    14  In vitro antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Alseodaphne corneri Kosterm
    Azeana Zahari Abdulwali Ablat Yasodha Sivasothy Jamaludin Mohamad Muhammad I. Choudhary Khalijah Awang
    2016, 9(4):320-324. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.008
    [Abstract](142) [HTML](0) [PDF 686.89 K](460)
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    Objective: To study antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities of the isolation of alkaloids from the active dichloromethane extract of Alseodaphne corneri. Methods: Phytochemical studies of the crude extract led to the isolation of six alkaloids using recycle high performance liquid chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. The antiplasmodial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated usingthe histidine-rich protein II assay. The isolated alkaloids were also tested for their antioxidant activity using three different assays; DPPH, ferric reducing ability of plasma and metal chelating assays. Results: Malaria infection caused the formation of free radicals which subsequently led to oxidative stress and apoptosis. The antioxidant properties of the alkaloids under investigation revealed that in addition to the antiplasmodial activity, the alkaloids could also prevent oxidative stress. (+)-laurotetanine and (+)-norstephasubine exhibited strong antiplamodial activities with IC50 values of 0.189 and 0.116 μM, respectively. Conclusions: Interestingly, the two most potent compounds that exhibit antiplasmodial activity also exhibit good antioxidant activities. The crude dichloromethane extract and the isolated compounds exert substantial antiplasmodial and antioxidative activities which in turn suppress oxidative stress and cause less damage to the host.
    15  Ebola virus disease: Recent advances in diagnostics and therapeutics
    Supriya Jagga Ashish Ranjan Sharma Chiranjib Chakraborty Sang-Soo Lee
    2019, 12(9):385-395. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.267581
    [Abstract](141) [HTML](0) [PDF 834.93 K](1009)
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    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is associated with haemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, with a high rate of fatality (up to 90%). Some outbreaks in human history have proven the lethality of EVD. The recent epidemic of 2014 and 2015 in West Africa was the deadliest of all time (11 284 deaths). To understand the transmission dynamics, we have reviewed the epidemiology of EVD to date. The absence of any licensed vaccines or approved drugs against Ebola virus (EBOV) further highlights the severity and crisis level of EVD. Some organizations (public and private) are making considerable efforts to develop novel therapeutic approaches or vaccines to contain the outbreak of EBOV shortly. Here, we summarized the various potential drugs and vaccines (undergoing multiple phases of clinical trials) that have arisen as an alternative against EBOV, and we highlighted the numerous issues and limitations hindering this process. Alternatively, an increasing focus on strengthening the medical and civic health structure could provide speedy benefits in containing the spread of EVD, as well as offer a resilient foundation for the deployment of novel drugs and vaccines to the affected countries, once such drugs and vaccines become available.
    16  Solvent–solvent fractionations of Combretum erythrophyllum (Burch.) leave extract: Studies of their antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and cytotoxicity potentials
    Fanyana M. Mtunzi Ikechukwu P. Ejidike Imelda Ledwaba Aroke Ahmed Vusumzi E. Pakade Michael J. Klink Sekomeng J. Modise
    2017, 10(7):670-679. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.007
    [Abstract](138) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.59 M](455)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the biological activities of Combretum erythrophyllum (C. erythrophyllum) leaf extracts against infectious diseases' pathogenesis and their cytotoxicity potentials. Methods: Powdered leaf material (300 g) of C. erythrophyllum was extracted (1:10 w/v) using acetone to obtain the crude extract. Liquid–liquid fractionation was performed on the crude acetone extract (30 g) using solvents of different polarity. The bioautographic method was used to detect the inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth by active compounds present in the crude and fractions. The extracts were then tested on bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; fungal strains: Candida albicans (C. albicans), Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus, by microtitre dilution method for MIC determination. Results: The extracts MIC values ranged between 0.08 and 2.50 mg/mL against the tested pathogens. Water fraction had the highest activity against bacteria strains, while the fungal assay revealed crude acetone extract and ethyl acetate fraction to be active against C. albicans (1.25 mg/mL), dichloromethane extract against C. albicans and A. fumigatus (0.16 mg/mL). Extract fractions showed a good antioxidant activity via DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays, in the order: ethyl acetate > water > acetone > dichloromethane > hexane. The toxicity level of crude extract and fractions evaluated in Vero monkey kidney cells ranged from 34 to 223 μg/ mL, while doxorubicin (IC50= 7.19 mg/mL) served as the positive control. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the extracts of C. erythrophyllum are safe for medicinal use in folk medicine for treating infectious and stress related diseases.
    17  Chemical analysis and antioxidant content of various propolis samples collected from different regions and their impact on antimicrobial activities
    Soumaya Touzani Noori Al-Waili Nawal El Menyiy Bratko Filipic Adriana Pereyra Ilham EL Arabi Wail Al-Waili Badiaa Lyoussi
    2018, 11(7):436-442.
    [Abstract](138) [HTML](0) [PDF 641.46 K](411)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the antioxidant content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of various propolis samples. Methods: Seven propolis samples were collected from different locations in Morocco, which are characterized by different plant predominant vegetations. The resin, wax and balsam of hydroalcoholic extract of propolis content were identified, and the antioxidant content was analyzed with the use of HPLC and colorimetric methods. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ABTS.+ and ferric reducing power assays. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against bacterial species, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and expressed as the minimal inhibitory concentration. Results: The propolis samples showed significant variations in the chemical composition and in the antioxidant or antimicrobial activities even when the samples were collected from the same location. Propolis with high resin and low wax content had high level of antioxidant compounds, and strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Gram-positive bacteria, especially, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were more sensitive to all propolis samples than Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. Conclusions: The chemical composition and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of various propolis samples are different and rely on the geographic and plant origin of propolis collection. Propolis samples with low wax and high resin content might be more suitable to be used in future preclinical or clinical investigations.
    18  Phytochemical overview and medicinal importance ofCoffeaspecies from the past until now
    éva Brigitta Patay Tímea Bencsik Nóra Papp
    2016, 9(12):1101-1110. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.008
    [Abstract](136) [HTML](0) [PDF 400.57 K](400)
    Abstract:
    Coffea(coffee) species are grown in almost all countries along the Equator. Many members of the genus have a large production history and an important role both in the global market and researches. Seeds (Coffeae semen)are successfully used in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries due to its caffeine and high polyphenol content. Nowadays, the three best-known coffee species are Arabic (Coffea arabica L.), Robusta (Coffea robusta L. Linden), and Liberian coffees(Coffea libericaHier.). Even though, many records are available on coffee in scientific literature, wild coffee species like Bengal coffee (Coffea benghalensisRoxb. Ex Schult.) could offer many new opportunities and challenges for phytochemical and medical studies. In this comprehensive summary, we focused on the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and medical significance of coffee species up to the present.
    19  Pouteria campechiana leaf extract and its bioactive compound myricitrin are mosquitocidal against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
    Raju Sangeetha Tamilselvan Pratheeba Chinnasamy Ragavendran Devarajan Natarajan
    2019, 12:321-328. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262076
    [Abstract](135) [HTML](0) [PDF 797.39 K](64)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To test the mosquitocidal potential of leaf extracts of Pouteria campechiana prepared with different solvents and elucidate the structure of an isolated mosquitocidal compound. Methods: The leaf extracts of Pouteria campechiana prepared with three solvents (petroleum benzene, ethyl acetate and acetone) and potential bioactive fractions were tested against various stages of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus by using the WHO protocols, and the chemical profile and its functional groups were identified by GC-MS and Fourier transmission- infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The structure of bioactive compound was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral technique. Results: The preliminary phytochemical results revealed the presence of alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids in the acetone extract. A significant toxic potential was observed in the acetone extract against both Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The acetone extract exhibits remarkable larvicidal (LC50: 12.232 μg/mL and LC90: 63.970 μg/mL), pupicidal (LC50: 18.949 μg/mL and LC90: 167.669 μg/mL) and adulticidal (LC50: 20.689 μg/mL and LC90: 72.881 μg/mL) effects against Aedes aegypti. Furthermore, the same extract was subjected to isolation of bioactive compound by GC- MS and FT-IR analysis. GC-MS results showed the presence of 5 major compounds, and octacosane (18.440%) was detected as the predominant compound. The FT-IR result of acetone extract demonstrated the presence of various functional groups like alkanes/alkynes, ester, aromatic and amides. The NMR spectrum results of isolated compound were well matched to glycoside linked flavonoids. Based on the chromatography and spectral techniques the isolate molecule was identified as myricitrin by FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. Conclusion: The isolated compound myricitrin possesses a significant toxic effect in all stages of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito’s with lowest LC50 and LC 90 values.
    20  Tioxolone niosomes exert antileishmanial effects on Leishmania tropica by promoting promastigote apoptosis and immunomodulation
    Maryam Hakimi Parizi Iraj Sharifi Saeedeh Farajzadeh Abbas Pardakhty Mohammad Hossein Daie Parizi Hamid Sharifi Ali Reza Keyhani Mahshid Mostafavi Mehdi Bamorovat Ahmad Khosravi Daryoush Ghaffari
    2019, 12(8):365-374. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262565
    [Abstract](133) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.62 M](1095)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the antileishmanial effect of tioxolone and its niosomal form against Leishmania tropica. Methods: Tioxolone niosomes were prepared by the hydration method and were evaluated for morphology, size, release study, and encapsulation efficiency. The cytotoxicity of tioxolone and its niosomal form was measured by MTT assay, leishmanicidal activity against promastigote and amastigote by MTT assay, apoptosis by flow cytometry, IL-12, IL-10 and metacaspase gene expression levels by q-PCR. Results: Span/Tween 40 and Span/Tween 60 niosomes had good physical stability as depicted in their size distribution curves and high encapsulation efficiency (>99%). The release profile of the entrapped compounds showed Fickian’s model of tioxolone delivery based on diffusion through lipid bilayers. With the IC50 value for amastigote as (24.5±2.1) μg/mL and selectivity index as 10.5, the Span/Tween 60 niosome (NT2) had a superior effect to other drugs. The CC50 value and IC50 of promastigote value for NT2 were (257.5±24.5) μg/mL and (164.8±20.6) μg/ mL, respectively. The flow cytometric analysis showed that tioxolone and niosomal forms induced apoptosis of Leishmania tropica promastigotes in a dose-dependent manner. NT2 increased the expression level of IL-12 and metacaspase genes and decreased the expression level of the IL-10 gene. Conclusions: Niosomes of tioxolone play an immunomodulatory role in increasing Th1 cytokine profile and inhibiting the Th2 cytokine profile. It could be used for treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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