Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

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  • 1  Epitope finding in 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV): The first world report
    Beuy Joob Viroj Wiwanitkit
    . DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.277515
    [Abstract](128) [HTML](0) [PDF 610.35 K](448)
    2  Imported cases of 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections in Thailand: Mathematical modelling of the outbreak
    Pathum Sookaromdee Viroj Wiwanitkit
    . DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.277516
    [Abstract](69) [HTML](0) [PDF 608.76 K](446)
    3  The phytochemical and pharmacological properties of artocarpin from Artocarpus heterophyllus
    Nik Nurul Najihah Nik Mat Daud Abdi Wira Septama Nordin Simbak Eldiza Puji Rahmi
    2020, 13(1):1-7. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273567
    [Abstract](54) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.07 M](156)
    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae) has been traditionally used in treating various diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, malarial fever, inflammation, wound healing and other diseases. Since various bioactive compounds have been found in this plant, this review focuses on the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of a potent bioactive compound artocarpin. Despite its various functions, a mechanistic review on this compound has not been reviewed specifically. Here, pharmacological studies in vitro and in vivo on artocarpin are discussed thoroughly stressing on anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant and antiinflammatory aspects of artocarpin. This review would be beneficial for future study to show the competency of natural products for their therapeutic characteristics.
    4  Annona muricata fruit extract protects against diethylnitrosamineinduced hepatocellular cancer in rats
    Ines Sifaoui Carmen M Martín-Navarro Atteneri López-Arencibia María Reyes-Batlle Basilio Valladares José E. Pi?ero Sutherland K Maciver Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
    2019, 12(6):283-287. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.261287
    [Abstract](53) [HTML](0) [PDF 823.36 K](192)
    Objective: To evaluate the combination of several statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin and simvastatin) and azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole) against Acanthamoeba spp. Methods: The efficiency of the different drug combinations against the trophozoite stage of different Acanthamoeba strains were evaluated by Alamar Blue assay. Effect on the cyst stage was observed by inverted microscope. Cytotoxicity of combinations of azoles and statins was evaluated by measuring the release of lactate dehydrogenase from a murine macrophage cell line. Results: Combinations of any of the tested statins and voriconazole or posaconazole were more efficient in inhibiting Acanthamoeba compared to statins or azoles individually. The drug combinations at the combined inhibitory concentrations 50% showed lower toxicity compared to that of the compounds alone. Conclusions: The combinations of statins together with voriconazole and posaconazole are more efficient than these drugs alone, and these combinations have lower cytotoxicity in mammalian cell lines.
    5  Solvent–solvent fractionations of Combretum erythrophyllum (Burch.) leave extract: Studies of their antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and cytotoxicity potentials
    Fanyana M. Mtunzi Ikechukwu P. Ejidike Imelda Ledwaba Aroke Ahmed Vusumzi E. Pakade Michael J. Klink Sekomeng J. Modise
    2017, 10(7):670-679. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.07.007
    [Abstract](52) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.59 M](69)
    Objective: To evaluate the biological activities of Combretum erythrophyllum (C. erythrophyllum) leaf extracts against infectious diseases' pathogenesis and their cytotoxicity potentials. Methods: Powdered leaf material (300 g) of C. erythrophyllum was extracted (1:10 w/v) using acetone to obtain the crude extract. Liquid–liquid fractionation was performed on the crude acetone extract (30 g) using solvents of different polarity. The bioautographic method was used to detect the inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth by active compounds present in the crude and fractions. The extracts were then tested on bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; fungal strains: Candida albicans (C. albicans), Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus, by microtitre dilution method for MIC determination. Results: The extracts MIC values ranged between 0.08 and 2.50 mg/mL against the tested pathogens. Water fraction had the highest activity against bacteria strains, while the fungal assay revealed crude acetone extract and ethyl acetate fraction to be active against C. albicans (1.25 mg/mL), dichloromethane extract against C. albicans and A. fumigatus (0.16 mg/mL). Extract fractions showed a good antioxidant activity via DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays, in the order: ethyl acetate > water > acetone > dichloromethane > hexane. The toxicity level of crude extract and fractions evaluated in Vero monkey kidney cells ranged from 34 to 223 μg/ mL, while doxorubicin (IC50= 7.19 mg/mL) served as the positive control. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the extracts of C. erythrophyllum are safe for medicinal use in folk medicine for treating infectious and stress related diseases.
    6  Influence of light intensity and water content of medium on total dendrobine of Dendrobium nobile Lind
    Zhi Zhao Jin-Ling Li Hong-Chang Liu Chun-Li Luo Hua-Lei Wang
    2017, 10(11):1095. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.10.015
    [Abstract](52) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.62 M](104)
    Objective: To ascertain the inflfluence of light intensity and water content of medium on the total dendrobine of Dendrobium nobile ( D. nobile). Methods: The principal component analysis combined with total dendrobine accumulation was conducted to assess the yield and quality of D. nobile in all treatments. In the experiment, D. nobile plants were cultivated in greenhouse as tested materials, and complete test of 9 treatments was adopted with relative light intensities 75.02%, 39.74%, 29.93% and relative water content of medium 50%, 65%, 80%. The plants were treated in June and harvested till December. Indexes including agronomic traits, fresh weight and dry weight of stem and leaf, ash content, extract, and dendrobine were measured. Results: Underthe light intensitytreatments of 75.02% with 50%, 65%, 80% water content of medium, the basal stems of plants were comparatively thicker with more leaves, and the fresh weight and dry weight of stems and leaves were signifificantly higher than other 6 treatments. Leaves in all treatments contained dendrobine. Under the light intensity treatments of 75.02% with 50%, 65%, 80% water content of medium, dendrobine content of leaves was lower while dendrobine contents of other treatments were more than 0.60%. After comprehensive assessment through the principal component analysis and total dendrobine accumulation, the results showed that 3 treatments with relative light intensity of 75.02% ranked the top three. Conclusions: In brief, the moderately strong light intensity and water content of medium from low to medium can facilitate the growth and yield of D. nobile plants, while light intensity from moderately weak to weak can enhance the dendrobine content.
    7  Annona muricata fruit extract protects against diethylnitrosamineinduced hepatocellular cancer in rats
    Subin Varghese Thomas John Paul Akhila Hosur Shrungeswara Subhankar Biswas AartiAbhishek Shah Chandrashekar Kodangala Subraya Yogendra Nayak
    2019, 12(6):272-282. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.261273
    [Abstract](50) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.33 M](222)
    Objective: To evaluate the anticancer potentials of Annona muricata fruit by in vitro and in vivo methods. Methods: The ethanolic extract of Annona muricata fruit was prepared by Soxhlet extraction method and further fractionated with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, scratch wound assay, and cell cycle analysis. IC50, apoptotic index and percentage cell migration were determined using HepG2 cells. For the in vivo studies, hepatocellular carcinoma was induced by administering 0.01% diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in drinking water in Wistar rats. In pre-treatment, rats were co-administered 200 mg/kg of fruit extract with DEN for 14 weeks. In post-treatment, the extract was co-administered after 8-weeks of DEN-induction for 14 weeks. Liver function test, haematological test, oxidative stress markers, relative liver weight, number of cancer nodules and histopathological parameters were determined. Results: Annona muricata fruit extract =significantly lowered cell proliferation counts. The chloroform-fraction possessed higher activity [IC50=(53.7±4.3) μg/mL]. The chloroform fraction inhibited cell migration, which was significant compared to curcumin. Further investigations regarding the mode of anticancer activity revealed that the chloroform fraction induced apoptosis. The cell cycle analysis indicated that cells were being arrested at G0/G1. In the in vivo studies, the DEN-control group showed a significant decrease in body weights with increased mortality rate, hepatic nodules, and impairment of liver function compared to normal rats. The rats pre-treated and post-treated with the extract showed positive results with significant improvement in the parameters that were adversely affected by DEN. In addition, other adverse effects of DEN, such as blood dyscrasias and hepatic endogenous antioxidant, were significantly attenuated by Annona muricata fruit extract. Conclusions: The Annona muricata fruit extract has anticancer activity when tested by in vitro and in vivo hepatocellular cancer models.
    8  Chemical analysis and antioxidant content of various propolis samples collected from different regions and their impact on antimicrobial activities
    Soumaya Touzani Noori Al-Waili Nawal El Menyiy Bratko Filipic Adriana Pereyra Ilham EL Arabi Wail Al-Waili Badiaa Lyoussi
    2018, 11(7):436-442.
    [Abstract](50) [HTML](0) [PDF 641.46 K](57)
    Objective: To assess the antioxidant content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of various propolis samples. Methods: Seven propolis samples were collected from different locations in Morocco, which are characterized by different plant predominant vegetations. The resin, wax and balsam of hydroalcoholic extract of propolis content were identified, and the antioxidant content was analyzed with the use of HPLC and colorimetric methods. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ABTS.+ and ferric reducing power assays. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against bacterial species, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and expressed as the minimal inhibitory concentration. Results: The propolis samples showed significant variations in the chemical composition and in the antioxidant or antimicrobial activities even when the samples were collected from the same location. Propolis with high resin and low wax content had high level of antioxidant compounds, and strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Gram-positive bacteria, especially, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were more sensitive to all propolis samples than Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. Conclusions: The chemical composition and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of various propolis samples are different and rely on the geographic and plant origin of propolis collection. Propolis samples with low wax and high resin content might be more suitable to be used in future preclinical or clinical investigations.
    9  Characterization of mycobacterium isolates from pulmomary tuberculosis suspected cases visiting Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory at Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa Ethiopia: a cross sectional study
    Biniam Mathewos Nigatu Kebede Tesfu Kassa Adane Mihret Muluwork Getahun
    2015, 8(1):35-40. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60184-X
    [Abstract](48) [HTML](0) [PDF 721.72 K](84)
    Objective: To characterize mycobacterium isolates from pulmomary tuberculosis suspected cases visiting National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory at Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis from January 4 to February 22, 2010 with total samples of 263. Methods: Sputum specimens were collected and processed; the deposits were cultured. For culturing Lowenstein Jensen medium (LJ) and Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (BACTEC MGIT 960) were used. Capilia Neo was used for detecting NTM isolates from isolates of BACTEC MGIT 960. In Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa Ethiopia, Deletion typing PCR method for species identification (from confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates by Capilia Neo) was done. Results: Out of 263 enrolled in the study, 124 and 117 of them were positive for mycobacterium growth by BACTEC MGIT 960 and LJ culture method,respectively. From BACTEC MGIT 960 positive media of 124 isolates, 117 were randomly taken to perform Capilia TB Neo test. From these 7 (6%) of them were found to be NTM and 110 (94%) were MTBC. From these 110 MTBC isolates, 81 of them were randomly taken and run by the deletion typing RD9 PCR method of molecular technique. Out of these 78 (96.3%) were found to be species of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 3 (3.7%) were found to be not in the MTBC. Regarding the types of methods of culture media, Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (BACTEC MGIT 960) method was found to have excellent agreement (with kappa value of 0.78) with the routine method of LJ. Conclusions: Pulmonary tuberculosis suspected cases visiting the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory at EHNRI that were confirmed to be pulmonary tuberculosis are caused by the species of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, hence treatment regimen including pyrazinamide canbe applied to the patients as the first choice in the study area in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. There is indication of the presence of NTM in patients visiting the tuberculosis reference laboratory and this is important because NTM is known to cause pulmonary disease similar with sign andsymptom of pulmonary tuberculosis but different in treatment. BACTEC MGIT 960 has excellent agreement with LJ media but it has high tendency of having high contamination rate unless abetter decontamination method is designed.
    10  Ebola virus disease: Recent advances in diagnostics and therapeutics
    Supriya Jagga Ashish Ranjan Sharma Chiranjib Chakraborty Sang-Soo Lee
    2019, 12(9):385-395. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.267581
    [Abstract](47) [HTML](0) [PDF 834.93 K](182)
    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is associated with haemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, with a high rate of fatality (up to 90%). Some outbreaks in human history have proven the lethality of EVD. The recent epidemic of 2014 and 2015 in West Africa was the deadliest of all time (11 284 deaths). To understand the transmission dynamics, we have reviewed the epidemiology of EVD to date. The absence of any licensed vaccines or approved drugs against Ebola virus (EBOV) further highlights the severity and crisis level of EVD. Some organizations (public and private) are making considerable efforts to develop novel therapeutic approaches or vaccines to contain the outbreak of EBOV shortly. Here, we summarized the various potential drugs and vaccines (undergoing multiple phases of clinical trials) that have arisen as an alternative against EBOV, and we highlighted the numerous issues and limitations hindering this process. Alternatively, an increasing focus on strengthening the medical and civic health structure could provide speedy benefits in containing the spread of EVD, as well as offer a resilient foundation for the deployment of novel drugs and vaccines to the affected countries, once such drugs and vaccines become available.
    11  Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antibacterial activity of essential oils from Etlingera sayapensis A.D. Poulsen & Ibrahim
    Behnam Mahdavi Wan A. Yaacob Laily B. Din
    2017, 10(8):879-886. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.08.006
    [Abstract](46) [HTML](0) [PDF 315.97 K](72)
    Objective: To report the chemical composition and bioactivity (including antioxidant and antimicrobial activity) of essential oils from the rhizomes, stems, and leaves of Etlingera sayapensis (E. sayapensis) A.D. Poulsen & Ibrahim for the first time. Methods: First, the essential oils were obtained using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Then, the essential oils compositions were identified by chromatography methods including GC-FID and GC-MS. For the next step, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), β-carotene bleaching (BCB), and ferrous ion chelating ability (FIC) were chosen to evaluate the essential oils antioxidant activity. Finally, disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC) was applied to investigate antimicrobial activity of the rhizomes and leaves oils of E. sayapensis against 18 microorganisms. Results: All of the oils contained oxygenated monoterpenes (leaves: 74.18%, stems: 75.60%, and rhizome: 54.61%), The essential oil obtained from leaves contained high amount of carvone (21.38%), cis-carveol (13.49%); The rhizomes oil was rich in linalool formate (25.47%), eugenol (11.84%); and the stems oil was dominated by αα-terpineol (39.86%), linalool formate (30.55%). The leaves oil represented the highest ability in all of the antioxidant activity tests. For antimicrobial activity, the rhizome oil presented more active when compared to leaves oil against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella sonnei, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. Conclusions: The most components of the essential oils belong to oxygenated monoterpenes. Linalool formate, carvone, and α毩-terpineol are found as the most abundant compounds in the oils of the different parts of E. sayapensis. The rhizomes oil can prevent the growth of wide spectrum microorganisms; however, the oils are not highly potent in antioxidant assays.
    12  Unlocking the in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of halophyte plants from the southern Portugal
    Marta Oliveira Policarpo Ademar Sales Junior Maria Jo?o Rodrigues Marina DellaGreca Luísa Barreira Silvane Maria Fonseca Murta Alvaro José Romanha Luísa Custódio
    2016, 9(8):714-719. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.015
    [Abstract](46) [HTML](0) [PDF 679.23 K](88)
    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) activity of organic extracts prepared from halophyte species collected in the southern coast of Portugal (Algarve), and chemically characterize the most active samples. Methods: Acetone, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were prepared from 31 halophyte species and tested in vitro against trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of the Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi. The most active extract was fractionated by preparative HPLC-DAD, affording 11 fractions. The most selective fraction was fully characterized by 1H-NMR. Results: From 94 samples tested, one was active, namely the root dichloromethane extract of Juncus acutus (IC50 < 20 μg/mL). This extract was fractionated by HPLC, affording 11 fractions, one of them containing only a pure compound (juncunol), and tested for anti-parasitic activity. Fraction 8 (IC50 = 4.1 μg/mL) was the most active, and was further characterized by 1H-NMR. The major compounds were phenanthrenes, 9,10dihydrophenanthrenes and benzocoumarins. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the compounds identified in fraction 8 are likely responsible for the observed anti parasitic activity. Further research is in progress aiming to isolate and identify the specific active molecules. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the in vitro anti T. cruzi activity of halophyte species.
    13  Sandfly fauna and ecological analysis of Phlebotomus orientalis and Phlebotomus martini in the lowland foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Somali Regional State, southeast Ethiopia
    Araya Gebresilassie Solomon Yared Esayas Aklilu
    2020, 13(1):31-37. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273572
    [Abstract](45) [HTML](0) [PDF 727.66 K](158)
    Objective:To identify the sandfly fauna and analyze ecology of sandfly vector(s) of visceral leishmaniasis in three districts of Somali Regional State, southeast Ethiopia. Methods: Sandflies were collected from four sampling habitats, including indoor, peri-domestic, farm field and mixed forest using light and sticky traps in July 2016, and February and April 2017 in Liben and Dawa zones in the Somali Regional State, southeastern Ethiopia. Results: In total, 4 367 sandfly specimens, belonging to 12 species (three Phlebotomus spp. and nine Sergentomyia spp.) were identified. Phlebotomus (P.) heischi, P. orientalis, and P. martini constituted 45.7%, 31.1%, and 23.1% of the sandfly collection, respectively. There were significant differences in the median number of P. orientalis, and P. martini captured per CDC trap/night between the three sampling districts (P<0.05). In light trap capture, collection habitats had significant effects on the abundance of P. orientalis, and P. martini (P<0.05). More median numbers of P. orientalis, and P. martini species were collected in agricultural fields followed by mixed forest and peri-domestic habitats. P. orientalis and P. martini were caught more in outdoor than indoor habitats, suggesting exophilic behaviour. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the presence of P. orientalis and P. martini are probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in this new focus. The findings of our study will improve the understanding of the dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis transmission and will facilitate the implementation of integrated disease control measures based on ecological knowledge of visceral leishmaniasis vector in Liben and Dawa zones and its surrounding regions.
    14  Pharmacological and analytical aspects of artemisinin for malaria: Advances and challenges
    Sravani Karri Sanjay Sharma Ginpreet Kaur
    2019, 12(8):339-345.
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](44)
    Malaria rests as a major tropical health complication owing to the development of resistance and decreased sensitivity to the frequently used conventional antimalarial drugs. The drug like artemisinin is one of the potent antimalarial drugs, but having some limitations. Therefore, new strategies are to be implemented for the best possible utilization of artemisinin to improve its therapeutic effectiveness and to overcome its limitations. The present review focused on present scenario of malaria and pharmacological as well as analytical aspects of artemisinin. The data were collected from 2000 to 2018 from NCBI for understanding the various analytical techniques used for the estimation of artemisinin. This review will reveal the facts about artemisinin which can be utilized to develop novel drug delivery system either in a combination or as alone for the wellbeing of the patients suffering from malaria.
    15  Pouteria campechiana leaf extract and its bioactive compound myricitrin are mosquitocidal against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
    Raju Sangeetha Tamilselvan Pratheeba Chinnasamy Ragavendran Devarajan Natarajan
    2019, 12:321-328. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262076
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 797.39 K](64)
    Objective: To test the mosquitocidal potential of leaf extracts of Pouteria campechiana prepared with different solvents and elucidate the structure of an isolated mosquitocidal compound. Methods: The leaf extracts of Pouteria campechiana prepared with three solvents (petroleum benzene, ethyl acetate and acetone) and potential bioactive fractions were tested against various stages of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus by using the WHO protocols, and the chemical profile and its functional groups were identified by GC-MS and Fourier transmission- infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The structure of bioactive compound was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral technique. Results: The preliminary phytochemical results revealed the presence of alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids in the acetone extract. A significant toxic potential was observed in the acetone extract against both Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The acetone extract exhibits remarkable larvicidal (LC50: 12.232 μg/mL and LC90: 63.970 μg/mL), pupicidal (LC50: 18.949 μg/mL and LC90: 167.669 μg/mL) and adulticidal (LC50: 20.689 μg/mL and LC90: 72.881 μg/mL) effects against Aedes aegypti. Furthermore, the same extract was subjected to isolation of bioactive compound by GC- MS and FT-IR analysis. GC-MS results showed the presence of 5 major compounds, and octacosane (18.440%) was detected as the predominant compound. The FT-IR result of acetone extract demonstrated the presence of various functional groups like alkanes/alkynes, ester, aromatic and amides. The NMR spectrum results of isolated compound were well matched to glycoside linked flavonoids. Based on the chromatography and spectral techniques the isolate molecule was identified as myricitrin by FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. Conclusion: The isolated compound myricitrin possesses a significant toxic effect in all stages of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito’s with lowest LC50 and LC 90 values.
    16  Some pathogenic characters of paratyphoid Salmonella enterica strains isolated from poultry
    Fabrizio Bertelloni Giovanni Tosi Paola Massi Laura Fiorentini Maria Parigi Domenico Cerri Valentina Virginia Ebani
    2017, 10(12):1161-1166. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.10.023
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 307.99 K](71)
    Objective: To investigate some pathogenic characters of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from poultry. Methods: Twenty-three genetically distinct Salmonella enterica strains, of different serovars and pulsotype, were examined for virulence traits. Resistance to gastric acid environment was estimated by measuring the percentage of survived bacterial cells after exposure for 2 h to a synthetic gastric juice. Strains were analyzed with PCR for the presence of the following virulence genes: mgtC and rhuM located on SPI-3, sopB and pipB located on SPI-5, Salmonella virulence plasmid (spv)R(spvR), spvB and spvC located on Salmonella plasmid virulence and sodCI, sopE, and gipA located on prophage. Finally, resistance to 21 antibiotics was tested with Kirby–Bauer method. Results: A percentage of 82.60% of strains were resistant to gastric environment after induction and 60.87% of the strains exhibited constitutive resistance too. Nineteen different virulence profiles were detected. The phage related genes sodCI and sopE and the plasmid mediated operon spvR, spvB and spvC (spvRBC) were detected in 82.60%, 47.82% and 52.17% of strains, respectively. Typhimurium and Enteritidis strains showed the highest number of virulence genes. Twenty-one different antibiotic resistance profiles were obtained and two isolates (Typhimurium and Enteritidis) resulted sensible to all the tested molecules. The ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance profile was detected in seven isolates (30.43%). Conclusion: Our results show that paratyphoid Salmonella strains with several characters of pathogenicity, that may be cause of severe pathology in animals and humans, are circulating among poultry.
    17  In vitro antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Alseodaphne corneri Kosterm
    Azeana Zahari Abdulwali Ablat Yasodha Sivasothy Jamaludin Mohamad Muhammad I. Choudhary Khalijah Awang
    2016, 9(4):320-324. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.008
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 686.89 K](80)
    Objective: To study antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities of the isolation of alkaloids from the active dichloromethane extract of Alseodaphne corneri. Methods: Phytochemical studies of the crude extract led to the isolation of six alkaloids using recycle high performance liquid chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. The antiplasmodial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated usingthe histidine-rich protein II assay. The isolated alkaloids were also tested for their antioxidant activity using three different assays; DPPH, ferric reducing ability of plasma and metal chelating assays. Results: Malaria infection caused the formation of free radicals which subsequently led to oxidative stress and apoptosis. The antioxidant properties of the alkaloids under investigation revealed that in addition to the antiplasmodial activity, the alkaloids could also prevent oxidative stress. (+)-laurotetanine and (+)-norstephasubine exhibited strong antiplamodial activities with IC50 values of 0.189 and 0.116 μM, respectively. Conclusions: Interestingly, the two most potent compounds that exhibit antiplasmodial activity also exhibit good antioxidant activities. The crude dichloromethane extract and the isolated compounds exert substantial antiplasmodial and antioxidative activities which in turn suppress oxidative stress and cause less damage to the host.
    18  Impact of seasonality on the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia lamblia infections among the aborigines
    Samseh Abdullah Noradilah Norhayati Moktar Ii Li Lee Fatmah Md Salleh Tengku Shahrul Anuar
    2019, 12(7):315-320. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262075
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](0) [PDF 656.99 K](172)
    Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia (G.) lamblia infections among the aboriginal community during the wet and dry seasons. Methods: A total of 473 stool samples from the aborigines in Temerloh, Pahang, Malaysia were collected during wet (n=256) and dry seasons (n=217). Smear of all the PVA-preserved stool samples were subjected to Trichrome staining and microscopic examination under 1 000 × magnification (Nikon eclipse E100) for the detection of G. lamblia. Positivity was recorded based on the presence of G. lamblia in trophozoite and/or cyst forms. Results: The prevalence of giardiasis was 12.10% and 8.29% during the wet and dry season, respectively. Age of less or equal to 15 years old and presence of other family members with G. lamblia infection were found to be the significant risk factors to acquire G. lamblia infections during both seasons. Untreated water supply was the significant risk factor of giardiasis during the dry season. This study highlighted the possibility of anthroponotic transmission of G. lamblia during both seasons and waterborne transmission during the dry season in the aboriginal community. Conclusions: This study suggests that seasonal variation plays an important role in the prevalence and risk factor of G. lamblia infection in the aboriginal community. Therefore, close contact with Giardia-infected family members and water-related activities or usage of untreated water must be avoided to reduce the burden of G. lamblia infection in this community.
    19  Chemoprotective activity of aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha wilkesiana against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in rats
    Chinedu P. Anokwuru God'swill N. Anyasor Olutayo S. Shokunbi Babajide Sopekan Oyindamola K. Osinuga Olusola E. Afolabi Olamide B. Arojojoye Chibundu N. Ezekiel Isaiah DI. Ramaite
    2019, 12(9):409-415. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.267584
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](0) [PDF 748.93 K](108)
    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha (A.) wilkesiana Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae) against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups of four animals each. The control group (I) was fed with pellets and distilled water, while group II was orally administered with only 20 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. Groups III, IV and V were coadministered with 20 mg/kg body weight cyclophosphamide and 110, 220 and 440 mg/ kg body weight A. wilkesiana leaf extract, respectively, for 7 d. After treatment, liver and kidney function biomarkers, haematological parameters, liver antioxidants, and mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore opening were investigated. Results: A. wilkesiana leaf extract significantly reduced (P<0.05) cyclophosphamide-induced increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, uric acid and urea. It increased superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase activities and reduced glutathione levels. It also increased packed cell volume count, hemoglobin concentration and white blood cell count while inhibiting the induction of mitochondrial swelling. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that aqueous extract of A. wilkesiana leaf protected tissues against cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative damage.
    20  Cryptococcal meningitis with pulmonary cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent patient: A case report
    Kee Tat Lee Kar Ying Yong Hock Hin Chua
    2020, 13(1):46-48. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273574
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](0) [PDF 791.14 K](158)
    Rationale: Cryptococcal infections commonly occur in immunosuppressed patients and are uncommon in immunocompetent persons. Patient concerns: A 32 year old lady, active smoker presented with right chest pain, dry cough and loss of weight. Initial chest radiograph showed a lobulated lung mass in the right lower lobe. She developed headache and right cranial nerve palsy during admission. Various investigations were done including lumbar puncture, brain and chest imaging. Diagnosis: Cryptococcal meningitis with pulmonary cryptococcoma. Interventions: She received five months of effective antifungal treatment; however, the patient did not respond well. Subsequently, removal of pulmonary cryptococcoma was done. Outcomes: Her condition improved and she no longer had any headache. Lessons: Disseminated cryptococcosis is rare in immunocompetent patient. Our case highlights the importance of high index of suspicion and we postulate that lobectomy helped in reducing the cryptococcal burden in her body, thus facilitating better response to antifungal therapy.

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