Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
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    2021,14(3):99-112, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.307532
    Abstract:
    Objective: To review the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among animal population of Iran. Methods: Data were systematically gathered from 1 January 2000 to 1 January 2020 in the Islamic Republic of Iran from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Springer, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, and Scientific Information Database (SID). According to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and inclusion criteria, 88 eligible studies were obtained. Results: The pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis using random and fixed effects model according to heterogeneity among animals was as follows: rodents 18.8% (95% CI 12.6%-25.0%), camels 17.1% (95% CI 8.6%-25.7%), cattle 16.8% (95% CI 13.4%-20.1%), goats 14.1% (95% CI 5.2%-23.0%), horses 12.2% (95% CI 8.3%- 16.2%), birds 10.5% (95% CI 7.6%-13.4%), sheep 9.9% (95% CI 2.4%-4.9%), cats 8.8% (95% CI 4.8%-12.8%) and dogs 3.7% (95% CI 7.0%-12.8%). Conclusions: Cryptosporidiosis has been reported and present in a wide range of animals in Iran over the years and has a high prevalence in most of these species.
    2021,14(3):113-121, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.307533
    Abstract:
    Objective: To identify the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) among school-age children in the Cagayan Valley, the Philippines, assess their level of awareness on the disease, and determine predisposing factors of the disease. Methods: A total of 478 Grades Ⅲ-Ⅴschool-age children in Pamplona and Sanchez-Mira School Districts in the Cagayan Valley answered the questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitude, and practices on STH, subjected to anthropometric measurements, and provided faecal samples for parasitologic assessment (direct smear, Kato-Katz, and formol-ether concentration techniques). Results: The participants of the study, with 55.86% females, were 8 to 14 years old. Their nutritional status was assessed ‘normal’ (84.31%), ‘severely wasted’ (6.49%), ‘wasted’ (5.23%), ‘overweight’ (2.72%), and ‘obese’ (1.26%). The prevalence of infection with at least 1 STH species was 25.99% in Pamplona and 19.40% in Sanchez- Mira. Overall, the prevalence of heavy intensity was 7.11% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 1.67% for Trichuris trichiura. All hookworm infections had light intensities. The majority of the school-age children had a low score in the KAP test. In knowledge of STH, ‘stunted growth as a symptom of infection’ was associated with a lower risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection (OR 0.448; 95% CI 0.212, 0.945; P=0.035) while ‘playing with soil as a mode of transmission’ was associated with an increased risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection (OR 2.067; 95% CI 1.014, 4.212; P=0.046). In attitude towards STH, ‘I think I have intestinal worm now’ was associated with a higher risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection (OR 1.681; 95% CI 1.061, 2.662; P=0.027). Conclusions: The prevalence rate of Ascaris lumbricoides among the school-age children in the Cagayan Valley shows the need to further intensify intervention in the area to meet the threshold set by the World Health Organization. The identified predictors of infection, which concerns the school-age children’s knowledge and attitude toward STH, can be used in augmenting intervention programs in the future.
    2021,14(3):122-127, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.307534
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the influences of the knowledge of parents about hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the benefit of HBV vaccination on the practice of HBV vaccination among children. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study recruited parents whose children, aged 12-24 months, received HBV vaccination at Commune Health Centers (CHCs) in Ho Chi Minh City from Feb. 2016 to Jul. 2017. Parents were interviewed using a questionnaire that included 11-item binary knowledge questions and checked their children’s vaccination cards. Results: A total of 768 parents had a mean age of (30.8±5.1) years. The mean knowledge score of the 11- item questions was (7.0±2.4). The knowledge score was positively associated with full and timely HBV vaccination. In addition, children who received complete and timely HBV vaccination were significantly more likely to live in rural areas (Adjusted OR 4.02, 95% CI 2.79-5.79, P<0.001). Also, children whose parents received vaccination information from health care providers, and had knowledge about HBV risk, had a higher rate of full and timely HBV vaccination (Adjusted OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.13-2.29, and Adjusted OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P all<0.05). Conclusions: Parents possessed a great deal of incorrect knowledge about HBV. More health education from health care providers should target parents living in specific locations and focus on the benefits of HBV vaccine.
    2021,14(3):128-138, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.306740
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate new compounds synthesized by integrating quinoline, quinazoline, and acridine rings with the active moiety of (5-nitroheteroaryl) methylene hydrazine. Methods: A new series of compounds (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, and 3b) were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against COS-7 cells using the MTT assay. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of the compounds was measured against CQ-sensitive (3D7) and CQresistant (K1) Plasmodium (P.) falciparum strains. β-hematin assay was performed to assess the inhibitory effects of β-hematin formation for new compounds. Results: The synthetic compounds had anti-plasmodial activity against blood-stage of 3D7 [IC50=(0.328-5.483) μM] and K1 [IC50=(0.622-7.746) μM] strains of P. falciparum, with no cytotoxicity against COS-7 cells in effective doses. Compounds 1a, 1b, and 2b were the most effective derivatives against P. falciparum 3D7 and K1 strains. Based on the β-hematin assay, the inhibition of β-hematin formation is the main mechanism of the inhibitory effect of these compounds. Conclusions: The synthetic compounds could inhibit the erythrocytic stages of CQ-sensitive and resistant P. falciparum strains without toxicity towards mammalian cells. Compounds 1b, 2a, and 2b had comparable anti-plasmodial activity against both CQ-sensitive (3D7) and resistant (K1) P. falciparum strains. These compounds may be promising lead structures for the development of new anti-malarial drugs.
    2021,14(3):139-142, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.307535
    Abstract:
    Rationale: This case report presents the diagnosis and etiology of hilar/mediastinal lymphadenopathy in a male patient. Patient concerns: A 49-year-old man presented with fever and dyspnea after physical exertion. Diagnosis: The patient was diagnosed with melioidosis by cultivation of lymph node aspirate on blood agar using the VITEK 2 compact system. Interventions: The patient was treated with ceftazidime intravenously, combined with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole orally for 1 week. Once the patient was discharged, he began a 12-week course of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Outcomes: The patient recovered after treatment with ceftazidime and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Conclusions: Melioidosis is an infectious disease that mainly occurs in tropical regions. It can cause severe sepsis and pneumonia, and the infection in some patients may become chronic. Endobronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration is a useful technique in the diagnosis of patients with hilar/mediastinal lymphadenopathy.
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    2019,12(6):243-249, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.261270
    Abstract:
    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects about 290 million patients worldwide. Children aged between 5 and 14 years represent 45.8% of the affected patients, in addition, schistosomiasis has been reported in Schistosoma-free areas, mostly because of tourism and immigration from endemic countries. Intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni is mainly diagnosed via direct stool examination for egg detection. Immunological methods are favoured for disease monitoring and preliminary checking for communities in areas with low infection rates, and for patients with light and chronic infections where parasitological tests are negative. PCR-based diagnostic techniques are more sensitive, but expensive. Tegument proteins and miRNAs are promising markers for diagnosis of schistosomiasis. Here we review the diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis mansoni aiming to reach a standardized technique for diagnosis of early infection to help better control of the disease.
    2019,12(7):291-299, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262072
    Abstract:
    The WHO reports that billions of people and animals in tropical and subtropical regions are affected by helminthiasis as neglected tropical disease. It is predominant in underdeveloped areas; nevertheless, the increase in the number of travelers and migrants has made this infection more common. The current mass drug treatment produces severe side effects and many strains of helminths are resistant to them. None of the chemotherapeutic drugs meets the ideal requirements of anthelmintics, such as broad spectrum of activity, single dose cure, free from side effect and cost-effectiveness. Today, many researchers are screening the traditional herbal system in search of the anthelmintic herbal constituents which overcome all the problems of synthetic drugs. Several researchers proclaim anthelmintic activity of herbal medicines by using different experimental models. The present review demonstrates natural product drug discovery, outlining potential of herbal constituents from natural sources as natural leads against helminthiasis.
    2019,12(6):272-282, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.261273
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the anticancer potentials of Annona muricata fruit by in vitro and in vivo methods. Methods: The ethanolic extract of Annona muricata fruit was prepared by Soxhlet extraction method and further fractionated with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, scratch wound assay, and cell cycle analysis. IC50, apoptotic index and percentage cell migration were determined using HepG2 cells. For the in vivo studies, hepatocellular carcinoma was induced by administering 0.01% diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in drinking water in Wistar rats. In pre-treatment, rats were co-administered 200 mg/kg of fruit extract with DEN for 14 weeks. In post-treatment, the extract was co-administered after 8-weeks of DEN-induction for 14 weeks. Liver function test, haematological test, oxidative stress markers, relative liver weight, number of cancer nodules and histopathological parameters were determined. Results: Annona muricata fruit extract =significantly lowered cell proliferation counts. The chloroform-fraction possessed higher activity [IC50=(53.7±4.3) μg/mL]. The chloroform fraction inhibited cell migration, which was significant compared to curcumin. Further investigations regarding the mode of anticancer activity revealed that the chloroform fraction induced apoptosis. The cell cycle analysis indicated that cells were being arrested at G0/G1. In the in vivo studies, the DEN-control group showed a significant decrease in body weights with increased mortality rate, hepatic nodules, and impairment of liver function compared to normal rats. The rats pre-treated and post-treated with the extract showed positive results with significant improvement in the parameters that were adversely affected by DEN. In addition, other adverse effects of DEN, such as blood dyscrasias and hepatic endogenous antioxidant, were significantly attenuated by Annona muricata fruit extract. Conclusions: The Annona muricata fruit extract has anticancer activity when tested by in vitro and in vivo hepatocellular cancer models.
    2019,12(6):283-287, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.261287
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the combination of several statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin and simvastatin) and azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole) against Acanthamoeba spp. Methods: The efficiency of the different drug combinations against the trophozoite stage of different Acanthamoeba strains were evaluated by Alamar Blue assay. Effect on the cyst stage was observed by inverted microscope. Cytotoxicity of combinations of azoles and statins was evaluated by measuring the release of lactate dehydrogenase from a murine macrophage cell line. Results: Combinations of any of the tested statins and voriconazole or posaconazole were more efficient in inhibiting Acanthamoeba compared to statins or azoles individually. The drug combinations at the combined inhibitory concentrations 50% showed lower toxicity compared to that of the compounds alone. Conclusions: The combinations of statins together with voriconazole and posaconazole are more efficient than these drugs alone, and these combinations have lower cytotoxicity in mammalian cell lines.
    2019,12(8):380-384, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262567
    Abstract:
    Objective: To report atypical morphological features of Trichophyton (T.) tonsurans strains associated with tinea capitis. Methods: Eighty-two T. tonsurans strains isolated in Ceará, Brazil, were analyzed regarding macro and micromorphological features and nutritional patterns. Results: Fifty-two samples presented abundant chlamydoconidia, which were produced in chains. Macroscopically, these strains developed small glabrous colonies that were firmly attached to the surface of the culture medium, with few or no aerial mycelia and intense rusty yellow pigmentation. Seven strains did not grow with stimulus from thiamine. Samples were heterogeneous regarding urease production and none presented in vitro hair perforation. Conclusions: The observation of T. tonsurans strains with distinct phenotypic features indicates the need to revise the taxonomic criteria for routine identification of this dermatophyte.
    2019,12(9):385-395, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.267581
    Abstract:
    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is associated with haemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, with a high rate of fatality (up to 90%). Some outbreaks in human history have proven the lethality of EVD. The recent epidemic of 2014 and 2015 in West Africa was the deadliest of all time (11 284 deaths). To understand the transmission dynamics, we have reviewed the epidemiology of EVD to date. The absence of any licensed vaccines or approved drugs against Ebola virus (EBOV) further highlights the severity and crisis level of EVD. Some organizations (public and private) are making considerable efforts to develop novel therapeutic approaches or vaccines to contain the outbreak of EBOV shortly. Here, we summarized the various potential drugs and vaccines (undergoing multiple phases of clinical trials) that have arisen as an alternative against EBOV, and we highlighted the numerous issues and limitations hindering this process. Alternatively, an increasing focus on strengthening the medical and civic health structure could provide speedy benefits in containing the spread of EVD, as well as offer a resilient foundation for the deployment of novel drugs and vaccines to the affected countries, once such drugs and vaccines become available.
    2019,12(8):365-374, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262565
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the antileishmanial effect of tioxolone and its niosomal form against Leishmania tropica. Methods: Tioxolone niosomes were prepared by the hydration method and were evaluated for morphology, size, release study, and encapsulation efficiency. The cytotoxicity of tioxolone and its niosomal form was measured by MTT assay, leishmanicidal activity against promastigote and amastigote by MTT assay, apoptosis by flow cytometry, IL-12, IL-10 and metacaspase gene expression levels by q-PCR. Results: Span/Tween 40 and Span/Tween 60 niosomes had good physical stability as depicted in their size distribution curves and high encapsulation efficiency (>99%). The release profile of the entrapped compounds showed Fickian’s model of tioxolone delivery based on diffusion through lipid bilayers. With the IC50 value for amastigote as (24.5±2.1) μg/mL and selectivity index as 10.5, the Span/Tween 60 niosome (NT2) had a superior effect to other drugs. The CC50 value and IC50 of promastigote value for NT2 were (257.5±24.5) μg/mL and (164.8±20.6) μg/ mL, respectively. The flow cytometric analysis showed that tioxolone and niosomal forms induced apoptosis of Leishmania tropica promastigotes in a dose-dependent manner. NT2 increased the expression level of IL-12 and metacaspase genes and decreased the expression level of the IL-10 gene. Conclusions: Niosomes of tioxolone play an immunomodulatory role in increasing Th1 cytokine profile and inhibiting the Th2 cytokine profile. It could be used for treatment of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    2020,13(1):1-7, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273567
    Abstract:
    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae) has been traditionally used in treating various diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, malarial fever, inflammation, wound healing and other diseases. Since various bioactive compounds have been found in this plant, this review focuses on the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of a potent bioactive compound artocarpin. Despite its various functions, a mechanistic review on this compound has not been reviewed specifically. Here, pharmacological studies in vitro and in vivo on artocarpin are discussed thoroughly stressing on anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant and antiinflammatory aspects of artocarpin. This review would be beneficial for future study to show the competency of natural products for their therapeutic characteristics.
    2019,12(7):306-314, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262074
    Abstract:
    Objective: To clarify the epidemiological aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in Kaleybar and Khoda-Afarin districts, north-west of Iran. Methods: A total of 1 420 human (children under 12 years) samples, 101 domestic dogs samples (Canis familiaris), and 577 female sand fly samples were collected. Sera of human and dogs were tested using the direct agglutination test, and sand flies were identified at species level using the microscopic method. Furthermore, a structured questionnaire was applied to evaluate the correlation between the potential risk factors and the related clinical signs/ symptoms with the human and dogs' seropositivity. Results: Totally, 2.18% of human samples were positive at titers ≥ 1: 800; among them, 13 cases (41.94%) were above 1:3 200, and clinical symptoms were observed in all of them except for an 11-year old girl. Anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies were found at titer ≥ 1: 320 in 9.90% of dogs' samples, half of them had at least one sign of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Moreover, 10 Phlebotomus species were identified in the study areas, and Phlebotomus (Larroussius) major group was the predominant species. There are significant correlations between the presence of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies and the fever (P<0.001), anemia (P=0.001) and weight loss (P=0.016) in children. On the other hand, significant correlations were revealed between the Leishmania infection and the shelter (P=0.039), cutaneous lesion (P=0.005), lymphadenopathy (P=0.001) and weight loss (P<0.001) in the infected dogs. Conclusions: Visceral Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Kaleybar and Khoda- Afar districts located in East-Azerbaijan province, therefore active detection and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis cases should not be neglected.
    2019,12(7):315-320, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262075
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia (G.) lamblia infections among the aboriginal community during the wet and dry seasons. Methods: A total of 473 stool samples from the aborigines in Temerloh, Pahang, Malaysia were collected during wet (n=256) and dry seasons (n=217). Smear of all the PVA-preserved stool samples were subjected to Trichrome staining and microscopic examination under 1 000 × magnification (Nikon eclipse E100) for the detection of G. lamblia. Positivity was recorded based on the presence of G. lamblia in trophozoite and/or cyst forms. Results: The prevalence of giardiasis was 12.10% and 8.29% during the wet and dry season, respectively. Age of less or equal to 15 years old and presence of other family members with G. lamblia infection were found to be the significant risk factors to acquire G. lamblia infections during both seasons. Untreated water supply was the significant risk factor of giardiasis during the dry season. This study highlighted the possibility of anthroponotic transmission of G. lamblia during both seasons and waterborne transmission during the dry season in the aboriginal community. Conclusions: This study suggests that seasonal variation plays an important role in the prevalence and risk factor of G. lamblia infection in the aboriginal community. Therefore, close contact with Giardia-infected family members and water-related activities or usage of untreated water must be avoided to reduce the burden of G. lamblia infection in this community.
    2019,12(8):375-379, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262566
    Abstract:
    Objective: To survey hemoplasmas infection in free ranging non-human primates from 8 provinces in Thailand. Methods: DNA from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood of 262 free ranging non-human primates were identified as hemoplasmas using PCR and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and rnpB genes. Results: A total of 148 non-human primates (56.49%) were determined positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque, including 125 Macaca fascicularis and 23 Macaca mulatta. Hemoplasmas can cause anemia in monkey but all positive samples were healthy. The positive rates in male and female non-human primates were not significantly different. Conclusions: Candidatus Mycoplasma infection is prevalent in free ranging Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta in Thailand.
    2020,13(1):46-48, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.273574
    Abstract:
    Rationale: Cryptococcal infections commonly occur in immunosuppressed patients and are uncommon in immunocompetent persons. Patient concerns: A 32 year old lady, active smoker presented with right chest pain, dry cough and loss of weight. Initial chest radiograph showed a lobulated lung mass in the right lower lobe. She developed headache and right cranial nerve palsy during admission. Various investigations were done including lumbar puncture, brain and chest imaging. Diagnosis: Cryptococcal meningitis with pulmonary cryptococcoma. Interventions: She received five months of effective antifungal treatment; however, the patient did not respond well. Subsequently, removal of pulmonary cryptococcoma was done. Outcomes: Her condition improved and she no longer had any headache. Lessons: Disseminated cryptococcosis is rare in immunocompetent patient. Our case highlights the importance of high index of suspicion and we postulate that lobectomy helped in reducing the cryptococcal burden in her body, thus facilitating better response to antifungal therapy.
    2019,12(8):353-364, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.262564
    Abstract:
    Objective: To prepare and characterize poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with soluble leishmanial antigen or autoclaved leishmanial antigen and explore in vitro and in vivo immunogenicity of antigen encapsulated nanoparticles. Methods: Water/oil/water double emulsion technique was employed to synthesize PLGA nanoparticles, and scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Zeta-potential measurements were used to identify the characteristics of nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of synthetized nanoparticles on J774 macrophage were investigated by MTT assays. To determine the in vitro immunostimulatory efficacies of nanoparticles, griess reaction and ELISA was used to measure the amounts of NO and cytokines. During the in vivo analysis, Balb/c mice were immunized with vaccine formulations, and protective properties of nanoparticles were measured by Leishman Donovan unit in the liver following the infection. Cytokine levels in spleens of mice were determined by ELISA. Results: MTT assay showed that neither soluble leishmanial antigen nor autoclaved leishmanial antigen encapsulated nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity against J774 macrophage cells. Contrary to free antigens, both autoclaved leishmanial antigen-nanoparticle and soluble leishmanial antigen-nanoparticle formulations led to a 10 and 16-fold increase in NO amounts by macrophages, respectively. Leishman Donovan unit calculations revealed that soluble leishmanial antigen-nanoparticles and autoclaved leishmanial antigen-nanoparticles yielded 52% and 64% protection against visceral leishmaniasis in mouse models. Besides, in vitro and in vivo tests demonstrated that by increasing IFN-γand IL-12 levels and inhibiting IL-4 and IL- 10 secretions, autoclaved leishmanial antigen-nanoparticles and soluble leishmanial antigennanoparticles triggered Th1 immune response. Conclusions: Both autoclaved leishmanial antigen-nanoparticles and soluble leishmanial antigen-nanoparticles formulations provide exceptional in vitro and in vivo immunostimulatory activities. Hence, PLGA-based antigen delivery systems are recommended as potential vaccine candidates against visceral leishmaniasis.
    2019,12(6):288-290, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.261308
    Abstract:
    Rationale: Acinetobacter radioresistens is a non-fermentative Gram-negative coccobacillus that is environmentally ubiquitous and is an uncommon cause of pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient with no known chronic medical illness. Patient concerns: A middle-aged Asian male with a smoking history presented with fever and cough. Physical examination was unremarkable. Chest imaging was consistent with pulmonary parenchymal infection and blood culture grew Acinetobacter radioresistens. Diagnosis: Community acquired pneumonia with Acinetobacter radioresistens bacteremia. Interventions: The patient received a combination of intravenous and oral ampicillinsulbactam over 2 weeks. Outcomes: Repeat blood cultures showed resolution of bacteremia. Completion of antimicrobial treatment saw resolution of respiratory symptoms and radiological pneumonic changes. Lessons: Acinetobacter radioresistens causing community-acquired pneumonia in an immunocompetent host has never been described before. It may be a novel emerging infectious agent in pulmonary infections. Its clinical course in this immunocompetent patient appears to be relatively benign.
    2019,12(6):258-263, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.261272
    Abstract:
    Objective: To describe the symptoms of dengue at acute and post-infection stage and to identify preventive strategies adopted by the patients in the Western Province, Sri Lanka. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Western Province of Sri Lanka in November 2017. The study population consisted of 473 confirmed dengue patients aged from 18 to 64 years who were hospitalized between June and August 2017. A stratified random sampling technique was applied to select the participants. Data collection was done by trained interviewers, using a structured, pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results: The most common symptoms of dengue fever at the acute stage was body ache (81.81%, n=387), followed by headache (71.67%, n=339), loss of appetite (66.80%, n=316), tiredness (53.06 %, n=251) and vomiting (41.86%, n=198). The most common symptom during the post-infection stage was body ache (48.62%, n=230), followed by fatigue (39.74%, n=188), and loss of appetite (28.75%, n=136). Adding sand to the water in places where water accumulates (41.64%, n=197) was the most common method used to prevent transmission of dengue followed by removing/draining stagnant water regularly (36.15%, n=177). Use of mosquito nets (83.08%, n=393) was the most common method in preventing mosquito bites followed by the use of fans among dengue patients (56.02%, n=265). Conclusions: The study shows a prolonged persistence of clinical symptoms during the postinfection period.
    2019,12(6):264-271, DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.261273
    Abstract:
    Objective:To evaluate the effects of methanol root extract of Mahonia leschenaultii and berberine of Mahonia leschenaultii on Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma in Swiss Albino mice. Methods: The methanol root extracts of Mahonia leschenaultia (200 and 400 mg/kg) were given orally, and berberines (10 and 20 mg/kg) were injected intra-peritoneally for 14 successive days in tumor bearing mice. Hematological parameters (white and red blood cells, haemoglobin level, granulocytes, and agranulocytes), lipid parameters (total cholesterol and triglycerides), serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatise) and mean survival and solid tumor growth were determined and compared with untreated mice. 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg) was used as a reference standard drug. Results: Mahonia leschenaultii and berberine reduced the hematocrit significantly. Furthermore, Mahonia leschenaultii and berberine improved the survival of mice significantly and restored the affected hematological and lipid parameters similar to the normal levels. Conclusions: These observations show a strong anticancer effect of methanol root extract of Mahonia leschenaultii and berberine in suppressing Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma cancer cell growth in a mouse model by controlling haematological, lipid, serum enzymes, and other derived parameters effectively.
    2017,10(1):1-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.11.013
    Abstract:
    Phylogenic evidence suggests that the strain of Zika virus causing an unprecedented outbreak of disease in the Americas had its origin in Southeast Asia, where reports of isolated cases of Zika virus infection have occurred since 2010. Why there has been no large outbreak of Zika infection in Southeast Asia remains unclear and whether such an outbreak will occur in the future is a question of significant concern. This review looks at Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective and highlights some of the possible scenarios with regards to Zika virus in this part of the world as well as highlighting some of the research questions that need to be urgently addressed.
    2017,10(1):6-10, DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.12.008
    Abstract:
    The recent Ebola outbreak in Western Africa was the most devastating outbreak witnessed in recent times. There have been remarkable local and international efforts to control the crisis. Ebola Virus Disease is the focus of immense research activity. The progression of events in the region has been evolving swiftly and it is of paramount importance to the medical community to be acquainted with the situation. Over 28 000 people were inflicted with the condition, over 11 000 have died. Novel data has emerged regarding modes of transmission, providing rationale for recent flare-ups. Similarly, studies on survivors are elucidating the later stages of the disease recovery process. Novel techniques for diagnosis are also discussed. Finally, the current research regarding treatment and vaccine development is reviewed, particularly the implementation of rVSV-ZEBOV vaccination programs.

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