Journal of Acute Disease
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    2020(2):47-48, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.278654
    Abstract:
    The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has become a global health emergency owing to its magnitude, attributed deaths, and its propensity to spread across the world. In-fact, owing to its quick spread across international boundaries and the resulting caseload, the disease has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020. It is worth noting that out of the 395 cases detected in other nations, 165 (41.8%) have a positive history of travel to China. As of now, the World Health Organization has not recommended for any restrictions on the travel or trade aspects, but has clearly specified that implementation of International Health Regulations should be strictly done at the airports and seaports. In conclusion, the COVID- 19 outbreak has created an alarm across the globe as the causative virus is novel in nature. However, strengthening of standard infection control practices and adoption of preventive measures for travelers can significantly minimize the threat of further transmission of the disease.
    2020(2):51-55, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.281312
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of Jintiange capsule in the treatment of acute bone atrophy due to wrist fractures. Methods: Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, i.e. the treatment group and the control groups. All patients received functional rehabilitation exercise. Patients in the treatment group received Jintiange capsule orally, while the control group received placebos. At 3 and 6 months after the treatment, Cooney score, hand grip and pinch strength were measured. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was applied, and safety events were recorded. Results: No loss occurred during 6 months of follow-up after treatment. Before the treatment, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in Cooney score, hand grip strength, hand pinch strength or VAS score (all P>0.05). At 3 and 6 months after the treatment, the Cooney core, hand grip and pinch strength increased, and the VAS were decreased in all patients. The treatment group showed significantly greater improvement than the control group (P<0.05). In additional, both groups showed few side effects. Conclusions: Jintiange capsule can improve the function of the wrist joint and alleviate the pain of fracture. It is safe and effective for treating acute bone atrophy.
    2020(2):56-60, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.281313
    Abstract:
    Objective: To reveal the factors leading to delay in the evaluation processes of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke at Yozgat City Hospital in Turkey and suggest potential solutions. Methods: Patients who visited the emergency service of Yozgat City Hospital between 1 April 2017 and 1 July 2017 and those hospitalized with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke, were included in this retrospective study. The clinical information of the patients was collected via hospital files and telephone interviews. In addition, the potential association between arrival time and the clinical parameters was investigated. Results: A total of 87 patients were included. The median arrival time to emergency service was 5 (IQR=9) h. Forty-four percent of patients arrived within the first 4.5 h from symptom onset. However, intravenous thrombolytic treatment was performed in only 7% of the patients. The median time from arrival to neuroimaging performing was 20.0 (IQR=34) min. Fifty-one percent of patients were screened within the first 20 min from arrival to emergency service. There was no association between arrival time and transfer method of the patients. Conclusions: The main problem regarding acute stroke care in our region may be inefficient use of emergency ambulance. This study provides basis for measures to shorten the arrival time.
    2020(2):61-66, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.281319
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and left ventricular function in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Methods: This study is a descriptive-analytic study and was conducted on patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, who were admitted to the Urmia Hospital in Seyed Alshohada Hospital, and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention from October to March 2018. Demographic, angiographic, echocardiographic data were evaluated based on the patients’ records. All patients were evaluated for 90 min and CRP levels were measured during the first 6 h after the primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Results: A total of 114 patients were studied, among whom 71.9% (82 patients) were male, and their mean age was (57.86±9.57) years old. The mean BMI was (26.1±3.8) kg/m2. Altogether 38.6% (44 patients) had a history of smoking, 17.5% (20 patients) of diabetes, 38.6% (44 patients) of hypertension, 5.3% (6 patients) of hyperlipidemia and 7.0% (8 patient) of coronary artery disease. The results showed a significantly negative correlation between ejection fraction and CRP, left atrial volume and CRP (P<0.05), and a significantly positive correlation between the global longitudinal strain level and CRP. The CRP level was significantly different at various diastolic grades (P=0.001). The level of CRP in patients with grade 2 diastolic dysfunction was higher than grade 1 diastolic dysfunction, while the level of CRP in diastolic grade 1 diastolic dysfunction was higher than the normal function. Conclusions: High CRP levels are associated with ejection fraction, global longitudinal strain loss and left atrial volume.
    2020(2):67-72, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.281320
    Abstract:
    Objectives: To determine the anthropometric indices, lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins (LBP), and lipid profile in patients with metabolic endotoxemia. Methods: The study comprised of 47 patients with metabolic endotoxemia (the metabolic endotoxemia group) and 43 controls (the control group). Patients in the metabolic endotoxemia group were categorized further into three subgroups including the normal weight group (n=8), the overweight group (n=12) and the obese group (n=27). Height, weight, waist, and hip circumference were measured, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. LBP was determined by ELISA and total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein by the respective enzymatic colorimetric methods. In addition, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein were determined by Friedewald’s formula. Results: The mean waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), BMI, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and LBP of the metabolic endotoxemia group were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the control group. WHR, TG, high density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein of the metabolic endotoxemia group were not significantly different (P>0.05) from those of the control group. The mean WC, HC, WHR, and BMI of the obese group with metabolic endotoxemia were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the overweight group and the normal weight group with metabolic endotoxemia. Significant positive correlations were obtained between BMI and LBP (r=0.610, P=0.001), total cholesterol and LBP (r=0.385,P=0.007), TG and LBP (r=0.356, P=0.014) in patients with metabolic endotoxemia. Conclusions: Metabolic endotoxemia arising from increased circulating level of bacterial derive particles consequent to perturbation in the gut microbial community and the elevated serum level of LBP may precede the development of obesity, characterized by dyslipidemia, dysregulation of gut energy harvest, and metabolic energy imbalance.
    2020(2):78-82, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.281323
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the management of early-onset sepsis at Saad Abul-Ella Teaching Hospital, Sudan. Methods: A descriptive retrospective hospital-based study was carried out at the Nursery Department of Saad Abul-Ella Teaching Hospital. All medical records of neonates with suspected or confirmed sepsis during the year 2017 were reviewed to evaluate the management of antibiotics for sepsis using a data collection form. Results: Out of the 205 cases, 82 neonates (40%) were diagnosed as early-onset sepsis, among which the majority was male (68%). All neonates were given cefotaxime plus vancomycin as empirical therapy which was changed to other antibiotics in 23% of the cases. The common risk factors associated with early-onset sepsis wereprolonged rupture of membrane (41.8%), preterm delivery (26.3%) and low birth weight (15.1%). Blood cultures were performed in 168 cases, and 19% had bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus which is the most common isolated pathogen. Conclusions: Cefotaxime plus vancomycin are the main empirical antibiotic for sepsis, and Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen associated with early-onset sepsis.
    2020(2):83-88, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.281324
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the antibacterial activity of fresh fruit juices against drug-resistant pathogens. Methods: Fresh juices were prepared by squeezing 7 fruits [Citrus sinensis, Citrus aurantifolia (C. aurantifolia), Punica granatum (P. granatum), Malus domestica, Ananas comosus, Fragaria ananasia, and Actinidia deliciosa]. The antibacterial activities were studied by using well-diffusion, minimum inhibitory (MIC), and minimum bactericidal (MBC) assays against 7 clinical pathogens: Grampositive, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis; Gram-negative, 2 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Results: The diffusion test revealed that Malus domestica juice had no antibacterial activity against the tested pathogens; Citrus sinensis and Ananas comosus revealed low antibacterial activity; Fragaria ananasia and Actinidia deliciosa revealed moderate antibacterial activity; P. granatum and C. aurantifolia exhibited high antibacterial activity against most of the clinical strains. MIC and MBC tests exhibited that P. granatum and C. aurantifolia had noticeable bactericidal effects with MBC/MIC values ranging between 2 to 4. Conclusions: The crude fresh juices of P. gronatum and C. aurantifolia have potential as natural therapeutic agents against some multidrug resistant bacteria and they could prevent pathogenic diseases.
    2020(2):89-92, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.281326
    Abstract:
    Rationale: Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative pathogen of melioidosis, which manifests with a broad spectrum of clinical syndromes. Melioidosis is associated with high mortality and is endemic across tropical areas, especially in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Patient concern: A 24-year-old diabetic male complained of fever and left upper quadrant abdominal pain for one-week duration. Diagnosis: Melioidosis with ruptured splenic abscess and splenic vein thrombosis. Interventions: Antimicrobial therapy (intensive therapy: intravenous ceftazidime, eradication therapy: oral trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole), and anti-coagulation (enoxaparin, then warfarin). Outcomes: Resolution of splenic abscess and splenic vein thrombosis. Lessons: Both splenic abscess and splenic vein thrombosis are uncommon but severe complications associated with melioidosis. Ultrasound is useful for diagnosis and monitoring response to treatment in such cases.
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    2019(2):45-52, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254411
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine and compare the diagnostic efficiency of various biomarkers[C-reactive protein, neutrophil percentage, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLCR), lactate, procalcitonin, blood culture] in the identification of septic patients in emergency department(ED), and to assess the predictive value of combination of markers. Methods: This was a prospective, single centre study conducted in the ED of an urban, tertiary care hospital. We included patients who were admitted to the ED with symptoms of a possible infection. Blood cultures and serum measurement of the biomarkers were collected from 131 patients. Patients were determined to be septic or non-septic, based on the systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and the diagnosis was made at the ED. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and area under curves (AUC) were calculated. Results: A total of 126 patients, 61 with sepsis and 65 without sepsis were eventually included in the study. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio displayed the highest accuracy in diagnosing sepsis (AUC 0.735, 95% CI=0648-0.822, P<0.001). The best combination of markers in predicting sepsis was NLCR and white blood cell (AUC: 0.801, 95% CI=0.724-0.878, P<0.001). Conclusions: The results of this small study showed that NLCR outperforms other markers in diagnosing sepsis in ED. It is readily available, cost efficient, non invasive and independent. It may be insufficient to rely on this single marker to diagnose sepsis, so some other diagnostic utilities should be taken into account as one part of the overall assessment. Our study also showed that combination of NLCR and white blood cell provides the highest diagnostic accuracy. More large scale studies across different population groups will be needed to confirm this finding.
    2019(2):53-57, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254426
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the drug susceptibility profiles and the frequency of beta-lactamase encoding genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) obtained from burn patients. Methods: Totally 93 non-duplicate clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were recovered from burn patients of Taleghani Burn Hospital of Ahvaz. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was conducted by disk diffusion method according to the CLSI 2017 recommendations. PCR assay was performed by to find beta-lactamase encoding genes. Results: In this study, most clinical specimen was obtained via wound swabs [65 (69.9%)], followed by blood [14 (15.1%)] and biopsy [7 (7.5%)]. Forty-two (45.16%) patients were male and 51(54.84%) were female. High resistance was observed for most of antibiotics especially for gentamicin and ciprofloxacin (Up to 85%), whereas the highest susceptibility was reported for colistin (100.0%), followed by ceftazidime (66.7%). According to PCR results, 16.1% (15), 9.7% (9) and 14.0% (13) of isolates carried blaDHA, blaVEB and blaVEB genes, respectively. It also revealed that the blaVEB gene was found to coexist within 2 isolates (2.2%). Conclusions: Antibacterial resistance is high among P. aeruginosa isolates. Colistin is highly active against multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing can confine indiscriminate uses of antibiotics and resistance increase, and can improve management of treatment.
    2019(2):58-62, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254427
    Abstract:
    Objective: To specify the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, factors affecting mortality including hematologic parameters, and red blood cell distribution width to platelet ratio (RPR) in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism, and to reduce the mortality. Methods: The archive records of patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism were retrospectively examined. The histories, risk factors, physical examination findings, arterial blood gas analysis, X-rays, laboratory, and computed tomography reports of all cases were obtained via the hospital information system. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent variables affecting early mortality.
    Results:
    A total of 146 patients with a definitive diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism were included. Thirteen point seven percent (n=20) of the deceased patients died at early term. Ninety percent of patients with early mortality was 65 years or older. There were significantly differences in age, RPR, D-dimer, creatinine, lymphocyte, pH, and body temperature between patients with and without early mortality (P=0.017, P<0.001, P=0.019, P=0.025, P=0.042, P=0.013, P=0.017, respectively).Logistic regression analysis showed that RPR was a statistically significant and independentrisk factors of mortality [P=0.026, OR: 0.254., 95% CI (0.326-5.056)]. In addition, there was a significant difference in pulmonary embolism severity index classification between patients with and without early mortality(P<0.034). Conclusions: RPR is an independent risk factor of mortality of pulmonary embolism patients and may help emergency physician to stratify mortality risks of pulmonary embolism patients.
    2019(2):67-71, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254429
    Abstract:
    Objective: To examine if hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) polymorphisms are associated with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS). Methods: Twenty two patients with PARDS and 11 non-PARDS controls were examined in pediatric intensive care unit in Cukurova University Balcali Hospital. Blood polymorphism was used to assess the Hif-1α C1772T and G1790A polymorphisms of Hif-1 αgene, and differences in genotypes between the 2 groups were compared. Results: Hif-1 α C1772T polymorphism was observed only in one case of PARDS group but non-PARDS group didn't show any C1772T polymorphism. Particularly, the difference in number of cases with Hif-1 α G1790A polymorphism was not significant between PARDS and non-PARDS groups. In addition, Hif-1 α G1790A polymorphism was significantly related to the distribution of lung opacities in children with PARDS (P<0.05). Conclusions: Our results indicate that Hif-1 α G1790A polymorphism is related to an increased susceptibility to pulmonary for PARDS children. The detection of G1790A polymorphism could help pediatricians to predict the extensity of PARDS early in lung tissue.
    2019(2):72-77, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254430
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the patterns and prevalence of complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) in Jazan region. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample (n=281) of the Jazan population attending Jazan Diabetes Centre. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection, and the statistical analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 17.0(SPSS Inc., Chicago,Ⅱ , USA) software. Results: The prevalence of one or more complications due to T2DM was 42.7%, which was significantly increased with age, BMI and T2DM duration. The prevalence also differed significantly according to gender and participation in exercise (P<0.05 for all factors). The prevalence of cardiovascular complications was found to be 7.1%, higher among males (9.4%) than females (4.1%), although the difference was not significant (P>0.05). The prevalence of retinopathy was estimated as 32.4% and significantly differed according to gender, age groups, participation in exercise and BMI categories (P value< 0.05 for all). The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the most important independent predictors of T2DM complications were T2DM duration (11-15 years) (P=0.028,OR=3.54) and having T2DM for more than 15 years (P=0.013, OR=5.38). Conclusions: This study reveals a high prevalence of long-term complications among T2DM patients attending Jazan Diabetes center. T2DM prevention and proper T2DM management strategies are strongly needed to minimize the burden of the disease due to T2DM complications.
    2019(2):63-66, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254428
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the characterization and frequency of antibiotic resistance related to membrane porin and efflux pump genes among Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) strains obtained from burn patients in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 100 strains of A. baumannii isolated from burn patients visiting teaching hospitals of Tehran were collected from January 2016 to November 2017. After A. baumannii strains were confirmed, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done via Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. PCR amplification was performed for detection of β-lactamase adeR, OprD, adeS genes among A. baumanniistrains. Results: All isolates (100%) were resistant to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime,ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin, and most isolates indicated high resistance (95%-97%) to meropenem, imipenem, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, piperacillintazobactam,amikacin, and tetracycline. The most effective antibiotic against A. baumanniiisolates was colistin (97% sensitivity), followed by tigecycline. The frequency of OprD, adeS,and adeR genes were 98%, 91%, and 77%, respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that the majority of A. baumannii isolates are highly resistant to the antibiotics most commonly used in burn patients. Also, high distribution of OprD and adeRS genes may be responsible for the observed resistances among A. baumannii isolates that demonstrate the possible role of both efflux pumps in simultaneous of carbapenemase production during antibiotic resistance.
    2019(2):78-81, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254431
    Abstract:
    Shoshin syndrome is a rare fulminating heart failure caused by thiamine deficiency. In Japanese “sho” means acute damage and “shin” means heart. It consists of a rare and hyperacute manifestation of beriberi that was first described in polished white rice-eating communities in various locations across Asia including China, Japan and Indonesia. In a totally different context, ‘Shoshin’ is a word from Zen Buddhism meaning "beginner's mind”, which is considered the necessary attitude to approach the Zen practice. This case report is a prime example of clinical manifestations of thiamine deficiency for the presence of both cardiological and neurological disorders, for hyperacute onset of cardiac failure (shoshin syndrome), for the simultaneous involvement of peripheral and central nervous system, and for the dramatic global recovery after thiamine replacement therapy. We therefore explain why the physician should adopt a beginner’s mind in clinical practice.
    2019(2):84-85, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254434
    Abstract:
    Uncontrolled diabetes gives rise to severe systemic complications that affect different systems of our body. Among those complications, hemiballismus is a rare manifestation that occurs due to hyperglycemia and can be reversible in most cases by decreasing elevated sugar levels to normal range. Here, we present a case of a patient with diabetic history since 10 years ago, who presented with uncontrolled jerky movements on one side of his body since 15 d, and he recovered after appropriate therapy. Medication adherence in diabetic patients and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels are important.
    2019(2):82-83, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254433
    Abstract:
    Distinguishing stroke mimics constitutes a considerable challenge for clinicians in emergency department. Here, we illustrate an extremely rare patient presenting with acute onset isolated dysarthria, who finally received diagnosis of tardive phenomenon associated with betahistine. Through the presentation of this case, we point out tardive phenomenon as an alternative differential diagnosis of stroke. Furthermore, this case adds substantial data presenting an interesting manifestation of isolated dysarthria as a tardive phenomenon, occurring due to betahistine usage which is extremely rare in literature.
    2018(2):90-92, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.233019
    Abstract:
    Acute renal failure is an important acute renal disease. It is the totally acute impairment of the renal function and can be fatal if there is no proper and timely treatment. There are various causes of acute renal failure. The acute renal failure might be due to contact with nephrotoxic substance. The food borne acute renal failure is an important problem that is sporadically seen worldwide. Of several food borne acute renal failure disorders, the fish borne acute renal failure is an important problem. In this specific short review, the authors summarize and discuss the cases on important fish borne acute renal failure disorders.
    2018(3):99-102, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.236822
    Abstract:
    Pulmonary embolism (PE), with the incidence of about 60 per 100 000 annually, can be a life-threatening disease if it is not treated promptly. It has been estimated that some 10% of PE patients die within the first hour of the event. Untreated PE has a mortality of about 30%. PE is a condition that is treatable if suspected and diagnosed early. The chest radiograph is still the first investigation that is ordered in patients presenting with cardiorespiratory symptoms or symptoms suggestive of PE. The CXR is also helpful in identifying or excluding other conditions or diagnoses. Thus, knowing and understanding some of the more specific CXR signs can be useful. We suggest that physicians to be aware of and utilize CXR findings such as Palla's sign, Westermark sign and Hamptons hump to help with the diagnosis of PE and to exclude other conditions that can mimic venous thrombo-embolism. Even if these signs are not common, their presence, even in an unsuspected patient without a high pretest probability of PE, should prompt further investigations such as a D-dimer test, lung scintigraphy or computed tomography pulmonary angiography as required.
    2019(2):86-88, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254435
    Abstract:
    Rationale: Acute abdomen is a medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and management. Lymphoma is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Patient concerns: A 54 year old patient complained of repeated episodes of acute abdominal pain over the past 3 months. Diagnosis: Mantle cell lymphoma. Interventions: Chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.Outcomes: Abdomen pain disappeared and the patient was discharged uneventfully. Lessons: Although it is a rare cause of acute abdomen, lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis workup of patients with unexplained and unusual acute abdomen.
    2019(3):113-117, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.259110
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the frequency of integrase genes intI1, intI2 and intI3 of Escherichia coli strains, and their association with resistance to routinely used antibiotics. Methods: A total of 120 Escherichia coli strains were collected from patients with urinary tract infection in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed. The presence of intI1, intI2, andintI3 genes was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Antibiotic susceptibility testing disclosed the highest resistance rate to ampicillin (91.7%) followed by trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (65.8%), and ceftazidime (56.7%). The imipenem susceptibility rate was 91.7%. IntI1 and intI2 were identified in 74 (61.6%) and 8 (6.6%) of Escherichia coli strains, respectively, but intI3 was not found in any isolates. The presence of integrons was significantly associated with resistance to ampicillin, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin antibiotics (P<0.05). Conclusions: The high resistant Escherichia coli isolates harboring class 1 integrons (intI1) were detected in patients with urinary tract infection in our region. Therefore, preventive strategies are necessary to restrict further dissemination of resistant strains.
    2018(3):93-98, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.236821
    Abstract:
    Acupuncture is actually convoked for supporting Western Medicine. Its “Golden Points” can undoubtedly help patients during its neurological recovery. After almost thirty years of experience in saving patients at impending death situations and having made numerous contributions on the field, the author herein provides a reasoned survival bio-energetic circuit based on a detailed methodological and functional analysis of the Main Channels and the Wondrous Vessels (Qi jing ba mai) participating in it. K-1 Yongquan complementary resuscitation maneuver, systematized since 1987, has been consistently performed in sudden death and cardiac arrest conditions as a final resource in both basic and advanced CPR failure. Experimental analytical studies identify the prevention, control and assessment of treatments set up as well as the determination of their efficiency. Acupuncture K-1 Yongquan Resuscitation Maneuver is presented not only as a complementary CPR rescuer but as a protective aid for both traumatic and vascular acute brain injury. Current indications of KI-1 Yongquan are not limited to actuarial results in cardiac arrest resuscitations, but it functions as a brain protector in both traumatic and vascular brain injury situations should be included. Although many acupuncturists indicate only standard techniques for bio-energetic rehabilitation, it has not been noticed that they insist with greater emphasis in those specific points to stimulate the “Sea of Marrow” (encephalon). Divulgation of K-1 emergency therapeutic possibilities look for its inclusion into Critical Care Protocols, in order to upgrade survival rates in both cardiac arrest and stroke victims. Traditional Chinese Medical balancing effect principle can improve cognitive, intellectual and psycho-motor patterns after even severe brain injuries. Beyond the scientific methodology that supports it the efficiency of the maneuver derives mainly from the sustained increase in survival rates presented in the successive statistics published in renowned scientific journals since its application.
    2019(5):179-184, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.268405
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the effect of self-management program on the health status of elderly patients with heart failure. Methods: The present study was a single-blind, randomized clinical trial, and conducted on 90 patients with heart failure of stages II-III at one teaching hospital in eastern Iran in 2017. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups: the intervention group and the control groups, with 45 patients in each group. Self-management programs including awareness and recognition, problem-solving process, diet, exercise, and stress management were carried out. The participants were trained for six weeks and were followed for two months. Data of the health status were collected before, after and eight weeks after intervention by Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Data analysis by chi-square, independent t-test, Fisher, ANOVA with repeated measures was conducted. Results: Patients in both groups were matched in terms of demographic characteristics before the intervention. There was no significant difference in the mean scores of health status between the two groups (P=0.1) before the intervention. However, the second measurement after intervention showed a significant difference in the mean scores between the two groups (P=0.001). Conclusions: Self-management program can improve the different dimensions of health (except in the subscale of sign and symptoms). Therefore, this supportive method can be used to improve the health of patients and manage problems caused by heart failure.
    2018(1):45-48, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.228878
    Abstract:
    Hemoptysis is a common emergency symptom for pulmonary embolism. It's important to differential diagnosis for this symptom. This article reports a case of pulmonary vein stenosis. The patient was transferred to a number of hospitals for medical treatment, but was misdiagnosed for 7 months. This article aims to improve clinician's ability to differentially diagnose hemoptysis, and to deepen the knowledge of pulmonary vein stenosis.
    2018(3):103-107, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.236823
    Abstract:
    Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disturbance usually observed in neurosurgical patients undergoing surgical management of traumatic, as well as, nontraumatic intracranial pathology. The spinal cord trauma is also associated with occasional development of such hyponatremia; it usually occurs within the first two-weeks of the injury. Hyponatremia can lead to alterations of consciousness, convulsions, coma, cardiac arrhythmias and on rare occasions, death. Authors present a practical oriented review of the literature.
    2019(2):45-52, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254411
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine and compare the diagnostic efficiency of various biomarkers [C-reactive protein, neutrophil percentage, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLCR), lactate, procalcitonin, blood culture] in the identification of septic patients in emergency department (ED), and to assess the predictive value of combination of markers. Methods: This was a prospective, single centre study conducted in the ED of an urban, tertiary care hospital. We included patients who were admitted to the ED with symptoms of a possible infection. Blood cultures and serum measurement of the biomarkers were collected from 131 patients. Patients were determined to be septic or non-septic, based on the systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and the diagnosis was made at the ED. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and area under curves (AUC) were calculated. Results: A total of 126 patients, 61 with sepsis and 65 without sepsis were eventually included in the study. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio displayed the highest accuracy in diagnosing sepsis (AUC 0.735, 95% CI=0648-0.822, P<0.001). The best combination of markers in predicting sepsis was NLCR and white blood cell (AUC: 0.801, 95% CI=0.724-0.878, P<0.001). Conclusions: The results of this small study showed that NLCR outperforms other markers in diagnosing sepsis in ED. It is readily available, cost efficient, non invasive and independent. It may be insufficient to rely on this single marker to diagnose sepsis, so some other diagnostic utilities should be taken into account as one part of the overall assessment. Our study also showed that combination of NLCR and white blood cell provides the highest diagnostic accuracy. More large scale studies across different population groups will be needed to confirm this finding.
    2018(2):88-89, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.233018
    Abstract:
    Pox is an important infection that can cause the acute illness with dermatological manifestation. Apart from the well-known pox infections, the emerging zoonotic pox infections become interesting new issue in infectious medicine. In this short review, the acute illness which results from new important zoonotic pox infections such as monkeypox, cowpox, raccoon pox and buffalopox is discussed and summarized.
    2018(2):69-73, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.233014
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the effects of large doses of vitamin C and vitamin E on nerve injury, neurotrophic and oxidative stress in patients with acute craniocerebral injury. Methods: Patients with acute craniocerebral trauma who were admitted to the Third People's Hospital of Zigong from April 2014 to December 2016 were selected as the subjects and were randomly divided into two groups. The control group received conventional treatment, and the intervention group received large doses of vitamin C and vitamin E combined with conventional treatment. On the 3th day and 7th day after treatment, peripheral blood was collected and serum was isolated, then the contents of nerve injury index NSE, S100B, NGB, UCH-L1, Tf, Ft and neurotrophic indexes NTF-a, BDNF, NGF and IGF-I were determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and the contents of SOD, GPx, CAT, OH-, O2-, MDA and AOPP were measured by radioactive immunoprecipitation kit. Results: 3th day and 7th day after treatment, the contents of NSE, S100B, NGB, UCH-L1, Tf, Ft, NTF-a, BDNF, NGF, IGF-I, OH-, O2-, MDA and AOPP in the intervention group were all significantly lower than those in the control group. The content of SOD, GPx and CAT in serum in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group. Conclusions: High-dose vitamin C and vitamin E treatment can alleviate nerve injury, oxidative stress response, and improve neurotrophic state in patients with acute craniocerebral injury.

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