Objective: To study the effect of locking plate internal fixation system treatment on the levels of bone turnover markers and inflammatory factors in patients with proximal humeral fractures. Methods: A total of 62 patients with proximal humeral fractures who received surgical treatment in the hospital between May 2013 and February 2016 were selected and divided into the control group (n=34) who received traditional common anatomical locking plate internal fixation treatment and the observation group (n=28) who received locking plate internal fixation system treatment. 4 weeks after operation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the serum levels of bone formation indexes, bone resorption indexes, pro-inflammatory factors and anti-inflammatory factors of two groups of patients. Results: Four weeks after operation, serum bone formation indexes OC, P1NP, BALP and BGP levels of observation group were higher than those of control group while bone resorption indexes PYD, TRAP, CTX and D-pyr levels were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-22 levels of observation group were lower than those of control group while anti-inflammatory factors sTNF-RI, IL-4 and IL-13 levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Locking plate internal fixation system treatment of proximal humeral fractures can promote the fracture end healing and improve the bone metabolism without causing strong systemic inflammatory reaction.