Objective: To study the differential value of shear wave velocity (SWV) in nodules quantitatively determined by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) for benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with thyroid nodules in the People's Hospital of Hai'an County between June 2014 and February 2017 were selected and divided into those with benign thyroid nodules and malignant thyroid nodules according to the biopsy results. Before biopsy, the ARFI ultrasonic elastography was performed to measure SWV, and the biopsy tissue was collected after biopsy to determine the expression of proliferation molecules and invasion molecules. Results:The SWV of malignant thyroid nodules was significantly higher than that of benign thyroid nodules; P53, CyclinG2, E-cadherin, TIMP1 and TIMP3 mRNA expression in malignant thyroid nodules were significantly lower than those in benign thyroid nodules while FOXA1, Survivin, XIAP, Twist and Vimentin mRNA expression were significantly higher than those in benign thyroid nodules; P53, CyclinG2, E-cadherin, TIMP1 and TIMP3 mRNA expression in malignant thyroid nodules with high SWV were significantly lower than those in malignant thyroid nodules with low SWV while FOXA1, Survivin, XIAP, Twist and Vimentin mRNA expression were significantly higher than those in malignant thyroid nodules with low SWV. Conclusion:The SWV of malignant thyroid nodules significantly increases and is closely related to the abnormal proliferation and invasion of cancer cells.