Objective: To study the correlation of electroencephalogram characteristics with serum cytokines, nerve molecules and apoptosis molecules in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with epilepsy in the First Hospital of Yulin between March 2015 and February 2017 were selected as the epilepsy group of the research and healthy subjects who received physical examination in the First Hospital of Yulin during the same period were selected as the control group. EEG examination was conducted to determine EEG discharge index, and serum was collected to determine the contents of cytokines, nerve molecules and apoptosis molecules. Results: EEG discharge index of epilepsy group was significantly higher than that of control group; serum IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, HMGB-1, S100B, NSE, GFAP, Bax and Caspase-3 contents of epilepsy group were significantly higher than those of control group and positively correlated with EEG discharge index while CGRP and Bcl-2 contents were significantly lower than those of control group and negatively correlated with EEG discharge index. Conclusion: The abnormal neuron discharge in patients with epilepsy is associated with the abnormal secretion of immune and inflammatory cytokines and can cause excessive damage and apoptosis of nerve cells.