Objective: To study the changes in three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound features before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for cervical cancer and their relationship with malignant molecule expression. Methods: The patients who were diagnosed with cervical cancer and received neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Wuhan Red Cross Hospital between March 2015 and October 2017 were selected as the cervical cancer group, and the patients who received cervical biopsy and were diagnosed with stage I cervical intraepithelial neoplasia by pathological findings during the same period were selected as the control group. Before biopsy, three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography was performed to measure VI, FI and VFI; the tissues of cervical cancer group before and after chemotherapy as well as the biopsy tissues of control group were collected to measure the expression of proliferation genes, invasion genes and angiogenesis genes. Results: The VI, FI and VFI levels as well as the Piwil2 gene (Piwil2), CyclinD1, N-Myc downstream regulated gene 3 (NDRG3), CXC chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5), cathepsin-L (CAT-L), EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1), angiotensin (Ang)1, Ang2 and angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) mRNA expression levels in the tissues of cervical cancer group before and after chemotherapy were all significantly higher than those of control group whereas the thrombospondin 2 (THBS2), Smac gene (Smac), large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1), reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) mRNA expression levels in the tissues were all significantly lower than those of control group, and the VI, FI and VFI levels as well as the Piwil2, CyclinD1, NDRG3, CXCL5, CAT-L, EFEMP1, Ang1, Ang2 and ANGPTL4 mRNA expression levels in the tissues of cervical cancer group after chemotherapy were all significantly lower than those before chemotherapy whereas the THBS2, Smac, LATS1, RECK and PAI-1 mRNA expression levels were all significantly higher than those before chemotherapy; the VI, FI and VFI levels in cervical cancer tissues were positively correlated with the Piwil2, CyclinD1, NDRG3, CXCL5, CAT-L, EFEMP1, Ang1, Ang2 and ANGPTL4 mRNA expression levels, and negatively correlated with the THBS2, Smac, LATS1, RECK and PAI-1 mRNA expression levels. Conclusion: The changes in the three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound parameters before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for cervical cancer can reflect the changes in proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis gene expression in the lesions.