TROPICAL PUBLIC HEALTH
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    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Background: Influenza vaccination is a primary prevention against influenza infection which is already included in national public health policies in many countries for its effectiveness in infection prevention. The geriatric population is the main focused group for influenza immunization, but there is little data regarding the influenza among geriatric subjects receiving influenza vaccination. Methods: This study was a retrospective reappraisal on the registry data in a medical center. The expected rate of influenza among geriatric subjects receiving influenza vaccination was calculated. Results: Based on the available data, the expected rate of influenza among geriatric subjects receiving influenza vaccination ranged from 0.10 % to1.52 %. Conclusion: There are many older adults who have already received influenza vaccination still have a chance of getting influenza infection. The history of influenza vaccination doesn’t guarantee against influenza in the elderly.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Background: Mosquito-borne malaria remains a major test for international public health. Malaria transmission and even death occur every year. Convenient international transportation has become one of the main causes of malaria transmission in non-neighboring countries. Methods: The existing local database was reassessed to determine the expected incidence of imported malaria from remoted non-neighboring foreign countries. Results: The calculated expected rate of imported malaria from a remoted non-neighboring foreign country is hereby equal to 0.15 % (95 % CI = 0.08 % - 0.29 %). Conclusively, imported malaria can originate from a remoted non-neighboring foreign country. Conclusion: A good system for monitoring of imported malaria in any returning traveler from a malarial endemic country is required.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: To access the complete immunization coverage among children aged 18-23 months living in rural area of Mon State, Myanmar,and study the affecting factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in rural area of Mon State during 2017.Altogether 353 caregivers who had children aged 18 to 23 months were selected using multistage random sampling. Face-to-face interview was applied in data collection. Complete immunization status was defined according to the current practice of routine immunization in Myanmar. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were utilized in data analysis. Results: Most of the caregivers were mothers (86.1%). Among 353 children, 293 (83% [95% CI: 79.1 to 86.9]) had been immunized completely. Majority of caregivers had good levels of knowledge (77.1%) and attitude (71.4%) towards routine immunization. Some children (17.6%) had minor adverse events after immunization (AEFI) such as fever and pain & redness at the site of vaccination. The present study identified that caregivers’ knowledge and attitude towards immunization, and the occurrence of AEFI in previous immunization session were significantly related to the status of complete immunization coverage (P< 0.001). Conclusions: Complete immunization coverage among children living in rural area of Mon State should be improved. Health education campaigns with appropriate strategies should be reinforced or strengthened in order to enhance caregivers’ knowledge and attitude towards immunization. The occurrence of AEFI should also be solved and thoroughly explained to the caregivers.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Rationale: Acute febrile illness is one of the major diagnostic and treatment challenges for clinicians to recognize co- infection with multiple pathogens in many parts of India and the Asia Pacific regions. Patient concerns: A 26-year-old male student presented with fever of unknown cause (104°F), accompanied with chills, cough, rigors, sweating, body ache, loss of appetite, nausea, headache, yellowish eye discolouration, loss of appetite, high pulse rate, yellowish color sputum, abdominal pain with moderate intensity and non-radiating, loose stool with high episode, vomiting and decreased urine output. Diagnosis: Mixed infection of dengue and scrub typhus. Intervention: IV fluids and antibiotics (ceftriaxone) and azithromycin. Outcome: Discharge without further symptom. Lessons: Clinical score based on febrile illness with continuous surveillance of deranged laboratory parameters is needed to accurately establish the presence of co-infections, which would offer timely treatment along with appropriate control measures that may reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Background/Aims: Many ethnic and indigenous populations in sabah have limited knowledge of Helicobacter?pylori (H. pylori).The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection among the populations of East Coast of Borneo and explore the relationship between demographic factors, ethnicity and risk of H. pylori infection. Methods and Material: A cross-sectional study which 211 patients who underwent elective oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGDS) in 2017 were enrolled. Demographic data, endoscopic indications as well as the results of the mucosal biopsy were obtained and analysed from the endoscopy unit registry. Results: Overall, the period prevalence for the year 2017 was 44.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the age and gender of patients with?H. pylori?infection were not associated with the clinical indications of endoscopy . However, there exist an association between ethnicity and H. pylori, whereby the Bajau (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 5.612, p = 0.005) and Dusun ethnic groups (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 7.359, p = 0.001) have higher odds of getting H.?pylori?infection compared to the Chinese. However, the regression model only explained 11.6% (Cox & Snell Pseudo R2) of the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Conclusions: The period prevalence for this study is 44.5%, with certain indigenous ethnic groups had higher risk than the others. Clinicians should consider to obtain further history regarding the ethnic’s culture and dietary practice prior to starting H. pylori eradication therapy.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    President Xi Jinping, at a CPC conference on press and public opinion, pointed out that in the new era the responsibilities and missions of CPC’s press and public opinion are to hold high the banner towards the right direction, focus on the core task and serve the overall situation, unite and inspire the people, cultivate a new social trend among the people, clarify the truth and distinguish right from wrong, bridge China and the rest of the world. He stressed that all the work of the CPC's media and public opinion should adhere to the unity of the Party spirit and the people's nature, turn the Party's theories, lines, principles and policies into the people's conscious actions, reflect the experience created by the people and the actual situation faced by the people in time, enrich the people's spiritual world and enhance the people's spiritual strength. This important address will play a crucial role in guiding various media to report the development of the novel coronavirus pandemic, reflecting the voice of the people, guiding the correct public opinion and supervising the work of pandemic containment and control. The media are responsible for timely, accurate and all-round reporting of the pandemic situation, fully exercising their right of speech, guiding the correct direction of public opinion, and maintaining social stability.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Updated at 8:41 a.m. on April 1, 2020, totally 771,618 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported in 203 countries and territories, resulting in 38,394 deaths. The global distribution of the COIVD-19 has the following characteristics: first, it is mainly found in the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, with relatively fewer confirmed cases in tropical countries. Second, population mobility is thought to be the main cause of transmission for the COVID-19. Third, the strategies and ways to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic vary among countries, since national conditions, pandemic development stage, political system and political will, medical resources and infrastructure, population size and composition, social culture and public will and some other factors are all different. The global response to the COVID-19 pandemic has roughly formed three patterns including the Chinese mainland pattern, the developed countries (territories) pattern in east Asia and southeast Asia and the developed countries pattern in Europe and America.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the potential of Phenol-Explorer database?containing 751 different food borne polyphenols against the M protease (Mpro) (Protein data bank Id: 6LU7) of SARS-CoV-2 and to find potential structural leads for its inhibition from daily food. Methods:?Molecular modeling, virtual screening, pharmacokinetics, drug likeness studies, toxicity analysis of potential hits and?N3?(known inhibitor), comparative docking studies of known drugs used in the?clinical application for the treatment of COVID-19. Results:?This study identified six potential polyphenols such as sanguiin, theaflavin gallate, theaflavin digallate, kaempferol, punicalagin and protocatechuic on basis of docking scores?as compared to peptidomimetic inhibitor (N3) of SARS-CoV-2 protein?Mpro. Furthermore, sanguiin and theaflavin derivatives were found to be potential binders of S-glycoprotein. ADMET (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity) studies predicted that protocatechuic acid with good pharmacokinetics as it showed 1 violation in Lipinski’s rule of Five. Most of the potential polyphenols in the Ames mutagenicity test were negative. Conclusions:?The dietary polyphenols in?black tea?and?berries?hold immense potential to bind with the substrate binding pocket of Mpro and Spike proteins. Top scoring compounds, sanguiin-H-6 and theaflavin digallate, are well established vasodilators. Hence, repurposing these vasodilating compounds for COVID-19 treatment is a highlight of this investigation. The study suggested the dietary intake of?black tea and berries increases resistance towards SARS-CoV-2 in early stages of infection.
    Select AllDeselectExport
    Display Method:
    Select AllDeselectExport
    Display Method:
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    President Xi Jinping, at a CPC conference on press and public opinion, pointed out that in the new era the responsibilities and missions of CPC’s press and public opinion are to hold high the banner towards the right direction, focus on the core task and serve the overall situation, unite and inspire the people, cultivate a new social trend among the people, clarify the truth and distinguish right from wrong, bridge China and the rest of the world. He stressed that all the work of the CPC's media and public opinion should adhere to the unity of the Party spirit and the people's nature, turn the Party's theories, lines, principles and policies into the people's conscious actions, reflect the experience created by the people and the actual situation faced by the people in time, enrich the people's spiritual world and enhance the people's spiritual strength. This important address will play a crucial role in guiding various media to report the development of the novel coronavirus pandemic, reflecting the voice of the people, guiding the correct public opinion and supervising the work of pandemic containment and control. The media are responsible for timely, accurate and all-round reporting of the pandemic situation, fully exercising their right of speech, guiding the correct direction of public opinion, and maintaining social stability.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the potential of Phenol-Explorer database?containing 751 different food borne polyphenols against the M protease (Mpro) (Protein data bank Id: 6LU7) of SARS-CoV-2 and to find potential structural leads for its inhibition from daily food. Methods:?Molecular modeling, virtual screening, pharmacokinetics, drug likeness studies, toxicity analysis of potential hits and?N3?(known inhibitor), comparative docking studies of known drugs used in the?clinical application for the treatment of COVID-19. Results:?This study identified six potential polyphenols such as sanguiin, theaflavin gallate, theaflavin digallate, kaempferol, punicalagin and protocatechuic on basis of docking scores?as compared to peptidomimetic inhibitor (N3) of SARS-CoV-2 protein?Mpro. Furthermore, sanguiin and theaflavin derivatives were found to be potential binders of S-glycoprotein. ADMET (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity) studies predicted that protocatechuic acid with good pharmacokinetics as it showed 1 violation in Lipinski’s rule of Five. Most of the potential polyphenols in the Ames mutagenicity test were negative. Conclusions:?The dietary polyphenols in?black tea?and?berries?hold immense potential to bind with the substrate binding pocket of Mpro and Spike proteins. Top scoring compounds, sanguiin-H-6 and theaflavin digallate, are well established vasodilators. Hence, repurposing these vasodilating compounds for COVID-19 treatment is a highlight of this investigation. The study suggested the dietary intake of?black tea and berries increases resistance towards SARS-CoV-2 in early stages of infection.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Rationale: Acute febrile illness is one of the major diagnostic and treatment challenges for clinicians to recognize co- infection with multiple pathogens in many parts of India and the Asia Pacific regions. Patient concerns: A 26-year-old male student presented with fever of unknown cause (104°F), accompanied with chills, cough, rigors, sweating, body ache, loss of appetite, nausea, headache, yellowish eye discolouration, loss of appetite, high pulse rate, yellowish color sputum, abdominal pain with moderate intensity and non-radiating, loose stool with high episode, vomiting and decreased urine output. Diagnosis: Mixed infection of dengue and scrub typhus. Intervention: IV fluids and antibiotics (ceftriaxone) and azithromycin. Outcome: Discharge without further symptom. Lessons: Clinical score based on febrile illness with continuous surveillance of deranged laboratory parameters is needed to accurately establish the presence of co-infections, which would offer timely treatment along with appropriate control measures that may reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Updated at 8:41 a.m. on April 1, 2020, totally 771,618 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported in 203 countries and territories, resulting in 38,394 deaths. The global distribution of the COIVD-19 has the following characteristics: first, it is mainly found in the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, with relatively fewer confirmed cases in tropical countries. Second, population mobility is thought to be the main cause of transmission for the COVID-19. Third, the strategies and ways to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic vary among countries, since national conditions, pandemic development stage, political system and political will, medical resources and infrastructure, population size and composition, social culture and public will and some other factors are all different. The global response to the COVID-19 pandemic has roughly formed three patterns including the Chinese mainland pattern, the developed countries (territories) pattern in east Asia and southeast Asia and the developed countries pattern in Europe and America.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Background: Mosquito-borne malaria remains a major test for international public health. Malaria transmission and even death occur every year. Convenient international transportation has become one of the main causes of malaria transmission in non-neighboring countries. Methods: The existing local database was reassessed to determine the expected incidence of imported malaria from remoted non-neighboring foreign countries. Results: The calculated expected rate of imported malaria from a remoted non-neighboring foreign country is hereby equal to 0.15 % (95 % CI = 0.08 % - 0.29 %). Conclusively, imported malaria can originate from a remoted non-neighboring foreign country. Conclusion: A good system for monitoring of imported malaria in any returning traveler from a malarial endemic country is required.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: To access the complete immunization coverage among children aged 18-23 months living in rural area of Mon State, Myanmar,and study the affecting factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in rural area of Mon State during 2017.Altogether 353 caregivers who had children aged 18 to 23 months were selected using multistage random sampling. Face-to-face interview was applied in data collection. Complete immunization status was defined according to the current practice of routine immunization in Myanmar. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were utilized in data analysis. Results: Most of the caregivers were mothers (86.1%). Among 353 children, 293 (83% [95% CI: 79.1 to 86.9]) had been immunized completely. Majority of caregivers had good levels of knowledge (77.1%) and attitude (71.4%) towards routine immunization. Some children (17.6%) had minor adverse events after immunization (AEFI) such as fever and pain & redness at the site of vaccination. The present study identified that caregivers’ knowledge and attitude towards immunization, and the occurrence of AEFI in previous immunization session were significantly related to the status of complete immunization coverage (P< 0.001). Conclusions: Complete immunization coverage among children living in rural area of Mon State should be improved. Health education campaigns with appropriate strategies should be reinforced or strengthened in order to enhance caregivers’ knowledge and attitude towards immunization. The occurrence of AEFI should also be solved and thoroughly explained to the caregivers.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Background: Influenza vaccination is a primary prevention against influenza infection which is already included in national public health policies in many countries for its effectiveness in infection prevention. The geriatric population is the main focused group for influenza immunization, but there is little data regarding the influenza among geriatric subjects receiving influenza vaccination. Methods: This study was a retrospective reappraisal on the registry data in a medical center. The expected rate of influenza among geriatric subjects receiving influenza vaccination was calculated. Results: Based on the available data, the expected rate of influenza among geriatric subjects receiving influenza vaccination ranged from 0.10 % to1.52 %. Conclusion: There are many older adults who have already received influenza vaccination still have a chance of getting influenza infection. The history of influenza vaccination doesn’t guarantee against influenza in the elderly.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Background/Aims: Many ethnic and indigenous populations in sabah have limited knowledge of Helicobacter?pylori (H. pylori).The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection among the populations of East Coast of Borneo and explore the relationship between demographic factors, ethnicity and risk of H. pylori infection. Methods and Material: A cross-sectional study which 211 patients who underwent elective oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGDS) in 2017 were enrolled. Demographic data, endoscopic indications as well as the results of the mucosal biopsy were obtained and analysed from the endoscopy unit registry. Results: Overall, the period prevalence for the year 2017 was 44.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the age and gender of patients with?H. pylori?infection were not associated with the clinical indications of endoscopy . However, there exist an association between ethnicity and H. pylori, whereby the Bajau (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 5.612, p = 0.005) and Dusun ethnic groups (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 7.359, p = 0.001) have higher odds of getting H.?pylori?infection compared to the Chinese. However, the regression model only explained 11.6% (Cox & Snell Pseudo R2) of the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Conclusions: The period prevalence for this study is 44.5%, with certain indigenous ethnic groups had higher risk than the others. Clinicians should consider to obtain further history regarding the ethnic’s culture and dietary practice prior to starting H. pylori eradication therapy.

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