TROPICAL PUBLIC HEALTH
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    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Background: influenza vaccination is a primary prevention against influenza infection. The influenza vaccination is already included in national public health policies in many countries. The geriatric population is the main focused group for influenza immunization. The influenza vaccination is mentioned for its effectiveness in infection prevention. Nevertheless, there is little data regarding the influenza among geriatric subjects receiving influenza vaccination Methods: This study is a retrospective reappraisal on the registry data in a medical center. The expected rate of influenza among geriatric subjects receiving influenza vaccination is calculated. Results: Based on the available data, the expected rate of influenza among geriatric subjects receiving influenza vaccination is between 0.10 % and 1.52 %. Conclusion: There are many elderly who already receive influenza vaccination that still have change to get influenza infection. History of getting influenza vaccine cannot confirm that there will be no influenza infection among the elderly who already got vaccination.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Background:Mosquito-borne malaria remains a major test for international public health. Malaria transmission and even death occur every year. Convenient international transportation has become one of the main causes of malaria transmission in non-neighboring countries. Methods:This study is a retrospective evaluation of the incidence of imported malaria from distant non-neighboring countries. Results: The calculated expected rate of imported malaria from a remoted non-neighboring foreign country is hereby equal to 0.15 % . Conclusion:A good system for monitoring of imported malaria in any returning traveler from a malarial endemic country is required.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the associations between dietary intakes, eating habits and socio-economic determinants and malnutrition in children under 5 years old in south China. Methods: A case-control study with 182 malnourished (case) and 254 normal (control) children was conducted in four towns using anthropometric measurements and questionnaires. Results: The dietary intakes of calories, protein, vitamins and minerals of malnourished children were lower than their normal counterparts. Overall, 37.9% children ‘monthly or never’ ate egg and egg products, 61.5% ‘monthly or never’ ate beans and soy products, but 76.7% had candies or cakes ‘daily or weekly’.?Four identified determinants of malnutrition were: 1) low education level of mother (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.67), 2) more children in one family (OR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.03), 3) absence of independent eating habit (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.72), and 4) long dining time (≥20 minutes) (OR=1.91; 95% CI: 1.12, 3.24). Conclusions: Our study revealed that inadequate dietary intake, lower socio-economic status and inappropriate eating habits were the major determinants to childhood malnutrition in south China. Nutritional intervention focusing on education and behavior change are warranted to help reduce the rate of malnourishment among the children of rural families in the future.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Background: Cyclops are the first intermediate hosts in the life cycle of Spirometra species. A simple method for culturing freshwater copepod of the genus Cyclops is described. Methods: Paramecium was used as single food organism. The culture started from a single egg sack bearing female Cyclops collected from a water pond in Tarangire National Park, Tanzania. Results: The average period of eggs hatched from each female copepod to become nauplius 1 took an average of 1.2 days while an average of 6.9 days was taken from nauplius 1 to become copepodite 1 stage and the growth of copepodite 1 to the egg-bearing adult female took an average of 26.3 days. The average length and width of an nauplius 1 were 80.0 and 120.2 μm which increased to 284.6 and 846.3 μm in the adult female stage. The number of broods produced by an adult female copepod ranged from 1 to 8 (mean, 4.3), and the average life time of copepod was 43.1 days. The stock culture was maintained for 1 year. Conclusions: The cultured Cyclops were used in the laboratory as first intermediate host in the experimental life-cycle of Tanzanian Spirometra species.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Context: Complete immunization coverage and its determinants among children Aims: To determine the complete immunization coverage and its determinants among 18 to 23 months old children living in rural area of Mon State, Myanmar Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was done in rural area of Mon State during 2017. Methods and Material: Altogether 353 caregivers who had 18 to 23 months old children were selected using multistage random sampling. Face-to-face interview was applied in data collection. Complete immunization status was defined according to the current practice of routine immunization in Myanmar. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were utilized in data analysis. Results: Most of the caregivers were mothers (86.1%). Among 353 children, 293 (83% [95% CI: 79.1 to 86.9]) had been immunized completely. Majority of caregivers had good levels of knowledge (77.1%) and attitude (71.4%) towards routine immunization. Some children (17.6%) had minor adverse events after immunization (AEFI) such as fever and pain & redness at the site of vaccination. The present study identified that caregivers’ knowledge and attitude towards immunization, and the occurrence of AEFI in previous immunization session were significantly related to the status of complete immunization coverage (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Complete immunization coverage among children living in rural area of Mon State should be improved. Health education campaigns with appropriate strategies should be reinforced or strengthened in order to enhance caregivers’ knowledge and attitude towards immunization. The occurrence of AEFI should also be solved and thoroughly explained to the caregivers.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    An acute fibrile illness is one of the major diagnostic and treatment challenges for clinicians to recognize the concurrent co-infection with multiple pathogens in many parts of India and the Asia Pacific region. Originally, the diagnosis was on the basis of clinical syndrome by a single pathogenic virus, which is initially isolated from specimen that would be the final approach of treatment. However, clinical reports suggested many vector borne viruses, but cases of mixed infection with dengue-orientia tsutsugamushi are distinctly limited and few were reported. This mixed infection case of dengue and scrub typhus was reported with abdominal pain, fever, headache, arthralgia, high pulse rate, altered blood count picture, and lowered platelet count. Normal range of hemoglobin, significant thrombocytopenia, lower systolic blood pressure, normal leucocyte counts, altered liver enzymes, and low serum albumin. Clinical score on the basis of febrile illness with continuous surveillance of deranged laboratory parameters is needed to accurately establish the presence of co-infections, which can offer timely treatment along with appropriate control measures that many reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality.
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    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Background: influenza vaccination is a primary prevention against influenza infection. The influenza vaccination is already included in national public health policies in many countries. The geriatric population is the main focused group for influenza immunization. The influenza vaccination is mentioned for its effectiveness in infection prevention. Nevertheless, there is little data regarding the influenza among geriatric subjects receiving influenza vaccination Methods: This study is a retrospective reappraisal on the registry data in a medical center. The expected rate of influenza among geriatric subjects receiving influenza vaccination is calculated. Results: Based on the available data, the expected rate of influenza among geriatric subjects receiving influenza vaccination is between 0.10 % and 1.52 %. Conclusion: There are many elderly who already receive influenza vaccination that still have change to get influenza infection. History of getting influenza vaccine cannot confirm that there will be no influenza infection among the elderly who already got vaccination.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Background:Mosquito-borne malaria remains a major test for international public health. Malaria transmission and even death occur every year. Convenient international transportation has become one of the main causes of malaria transmission in non-neighboring countries. Methods:This study is a retrospective evaluation of the incidence of imported malaria from distant non-neighboring countries. Results: The calculated expected rate of imported malaria from a remoted non-neighboring foreign country is hereby equal to 0.15 % . Conclusion:A good system for monitoring of imported malaria in any returning traveler from a malarial endemic country is required.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the associations between dietary intakes, eating habits and socio-economic determinants and malnutrition in children under 5 years old in south China. Methods: A case-control study with 182 malnourished (case) and 254 normal (control) children was conducted in four towns using anthropometric measurements and questionnaires. Results: The dietary intakes of calories, protein, vitamins and minerals of malnourished children were lower than their normal counterparts. Overall, 37.9% children ‘monthly or never’ ate egg and egg products, 61.5% ‘monthly or never’ ate beans and soy products, but 76.7% had candies or cakes ‘daily or weekly’.?Four identified determinants of malnutrition were: 1) low education level of mother (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.67), 2) more children in one family (OR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.03), 3) absence of independent eating habit (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.72), and 4) long dining time (≥20 minutes) (OR=1.91; 95% CI: 1.12, 3.24). Conclusions: Our study revealed that inadequate dietary intake, lower socio-economic status and inappropriate eating habits were the major determinants to childhood malnutrition in south China. Nutritional intervention focusing on education and behavior change are warranted to help reduce the rate of malnourishment among the children of rural families in the future.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Abstract Background: Cyclops are the first intermediate hosts in the life cycle of Spirometra species. A simple method for culturing freshwater copepod of the genus Cyclops is described. Methods: Paramecium was used as single food organism. The culture started from a single egg sack bearing female Cyclops collected from a water pond in Tarangire National Park, Tanzania. Results: The average period of eggs hatched from each female copepod to become nauplius 1 took an average of 1.2 days while an average of 6.9 days was taken from nauplius 1 to become copepodite 1 stage and the growth of copepodite 1 to the egg-bearing adult female took an average of 26.3 days. The average length and width of an nauplius 1 were 80.0 and 120.2 μm which increased to 284.6 and 846.3 μm in the adult female stage. The number of broods produced by an adult female copepod ranged from 1 to 8 (mean, 4.3), and the average life time of copepod was 43.1 days. The stock culture was maintained for 1 year. Conclusions: The cultured Cyclops were used in the laboratory as first intermediate host in the experimental life-cycle of Tanzanian Spirometra species.
    2020(1), DOI:
    Abstract:
    Abstract: Context: Complete immunization coverage and its determinants among children Aims: To determine the complete immunization coverage and its determinants among 18 to 23 months old children living in rural area of Mon State, Myanmar Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was done in rural area of Mon State during 2017. Methods and Material: Altogether 353 caregivers who had 18 to 23 months old children were selected using multistage random sampling. Face-to-face interview was applied in data collection. Complete immunization status was defined according to the current practice of routine immunization in Myanmar. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were utilized in data analysis. Results: Most of the caregivers were mothers (86.1%). Among 353 children, 293 (83% [95% CI: 79.1 to 86.9]) had been immunized completely. Majority of caregivers had good levels of knowledge (77.1%) and attitude (71.4%) towards routine immunization. Some children (17.6%) had minor adverse events after immunization (AEFI) such as fever and pain & redness at the site of vaccination. The present study identified that caregivers’ knowledge and attitude towards immunization, and the occurrence of AEFI in previous immunization session were significantly related to the status of complete immunization coverage (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Complete immunization coverage among children living in rural area of Mon State should be improved. Health education campaigns with appropriate strategies should be reinforced or strengthened in order to enhance caregivers’ knowledge and attitude towards immunization. The occurrence of AEFI should also be solved and thoroughly explained to the caregivers.

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