Journal of Acute Disease
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    2024(2):45-52, DOI: 10.4103/jad.jad_9_24
    The widespread outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization and various governments worldwide. This prompted the implementation of stringent infection control measures to curb the spread of the virus. Amidst this, the medical community faced the challenge of treating the virus without specific therapies or a vaccine, leading to reliance on empirical treatment approaches. In this context, hydroxychloroquine, an antimalarial and antirheumatic drug, gained attention as a potential treatment option. Despite its theoretical benefits, such as inhibiting viral entry, reducing inflammation, and modulating immune responses, empirical studies yielded inconsistent results. Some indicated a potential for symptom relief, while others showed no significant improvement in patient outcomes. The initial enthusiasm waned as the lack of substantial evidence led to revoking its Emergency Use Authorization, and several clinical trials were prematurely halted. The review in question critically examines the factors contributing to the ineffectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting the complexities of drug repurposing during a rapidly evolving pandemic.
    2024(2):53-59, DOI: 10.4103/jad.jad_41_24
    Sepsis and septic shock are life-threatening conditions that are globally responsible for almost 20% of mortality, especially in low and middle-income countries. This review was conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar databases with keywords sepsis, septic shock, sepsis management, and sepsis complications. Articles published up to July 2023 in English were included. Diagnosis and management should be carried out without unnecessary delay. Cooperation between various medical specialties including intensive care doctors, neurologists, hepatologists, cardiologists, and pediatric doctors is needed if a child is affected. New strategies have to be implemented in low and middle-income countries to decrease the sepsis incidence and reduce mortality in the population.
    2024(2):60-66, DOI: 10.4103/jad.jad_30_24
    Objective: To evaluate the risk factors of death caused by COVID-19 in Iran.
    Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study from February 20, 2020, to August 22, 2022, in the hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. The data were collected through a researcher-made checklist. To determine the risk factors of the death, logistic regression and Cox regression models were used. For each variable, the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were also reported.
    Results: 1885 Patients were included. The age of deceased persons was significantly higher than that of the surviving persons. The risk of death for the age group above 60 years was about 14 times higher than that of people aged 19-35 years [95% CI: 14.41 (2.02-102.99), P<0.01]. Hypertension [95% CI: 1.92 (1.47-2.5), P<0.01], diabetes [95% CI: 1.62 (1.23-2.13), P<0.001], and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [95% CI: 1.92 (1.47-2.50), P<0.01] were also risk factors of mortality.
    Conclusions: This study reveals that the mortality rate due to COVID-19 is associated with old age, longer hospitalization in the ICU, increased length of stay, and comorbidities of high blood pressure, diabetes, and chronic pulmonary disease.
    2024(2):67-73, DOI: 10.4103/jad.jad_137_23
    Objective: To investigate the distribution pattern of animal bites in Mirjaveh, Iran from 2015 to 2020.
    Methods: The data on animal bites were collected from the Department of Infectious Diseases, the provincial health center. Monthly climatic data on precipitation and temperature during the study period were also collected. The correlation between incidence and temperature, precipitation rate, land type, and altitude was also analyzed.
    Results: The results showed that men were more affected by animal bites than women (76.4%, P<0.001), and the highest incidence rate occurred in the age group of 5-19 years. The incidence rate of animal bites was found to be correlated with temperature and altitude. An increase in temperature was associated with a rise in the incidence rate of animal bites. The number of animal bites increased until 2019, possibly due to an increase in the number of dogs in the area.
    Conclusions: Targeted interventions should be implemented to reduce the incidence of animal bites, particularly among children, housewives, and students. Improving access to appropriate treatments, increasing public awareness of the hazards of animal bites, and increasing the number of vaccinated dogs in the area are essential strategies to be considered.
    2024(2):74-80, DOI: 10.4103/jad.jad_7_24
    Objective: To investigate the frequency of exoU and exoY genes in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.
    Methods: In this study, 100 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected from patients hospitalized in educational-therapeutic hospitals and were identified using standard microbiological tests. Then, the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates was determined by the disk agar diffusion method. The bacterial DNAs were extracted by the alkaline lysis method. Finally, the presence of exoU and exoY genes was evaluated by the PCR test.
    Results: In this study, 47%, 72%, 29%, 39%, 40%, and 44% of the isolates were non-susceptible to piperacillin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, imipenem, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively. In addition, 95% and 93% of the clinical isolates carried the exoU and exoY genes. Blood and fecal isolates had both virulence genes, while only one wound isolate had neither genes. Meanwhile, all urinary isolates contained the exoY gene and only one isolate lacked the exoU gene. Also, 88 isolates simultaneously had both exoU and exoY genes.
    Conclusions: High prevalence of exoU and exoY genes in this region indicates a significant role of type III secretion system in pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The type III secretion system may be a suitable target to reduce the pathogenicity of this bacterium.
    2024(2):81-84, DOI: 10.4103/jad.jad_98_21
    Rationale: Acute caustic ingestion from suicidal intent is not usual in emergency departments in developed countries. One of the substances commonly ingested by suicidal patients, phosphoric acid, tends to cause multi-system derangements.
    Patient’s Concern: A 41-year-old male patient presented with complaints of throat discomfort, severe generalized abdominal pain, and multiple episodes of hematemesis after ingesting a restroom cleaning solution.
    Diagnosis: Poisoning by acute caustic ingestion (containing <30% phosphoric acid and <4% ethylene glycol) .
    Interventions: The patient was administered 50 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution followed by an isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution running at 500 mL/h, a hyperkalemia kit, ceftriaxone, metronidazole, omeprazole, and atropine. The patient then underwent urgent hemodialysis.
    Outcomes: The patient suffered gastrointestinal bleeding as a result of local caustic injury. In addition, his course of illness was complicated by severe acidemia from high anion gap metabolic acidosis and deranged electrolytes (hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, and hypocalcemia). He developed multi-organ failure and eventually demised.
    Lessons: The clinician needs to be mindful of the multi-system complications arising from such a caustic ingestion. These patients need to be monitored closely for deterioration, and have prompt management of the various arising complications, to reduce the high morbidity and mortality associated with this condition.
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    2018(3):99-102, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.236822
    Pulmonary embolism (PE), with the incidence of about 60 per 100 000 annually, can be a life-threatening disease if it is not treated promptly. It has been estimated that some 10% of PE patients die within the first hour of the event. Untreated PE has a mortality of about 30%. PE is a condition that is treatable if suspected and diagnosed early. The chest radiograph is still the first investigation that is ordered in patients presenting with cardiorespiratory symptoms or symptoms suggestive of PE. The CXR is also helpful in identifying or excluding other conditions or diagnoses. Thus, knowing and understanding some of the more specific CXR signs can be useful. We suggest that physicians to be aware of and utilize CXR findings such as Palla's sign, Westermark sign and Hamptons hump to help with the diagnosis of PE and to exclude other conditions that can mimic venous thrombo-embolism. Even if these signs are not common, their presence, even in an unsuspected patient without a high pretest probability of PE, should prompt further investigations such as a D-dimer test, lung scintigraphy or computed tomography pulmonary angiography as required.
    2018(3):93-98, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.236821
    Acupuncture is actually convoked for supporting Western Medicine. Its “Golden Points” can undoubtedly help patients during its neurological recovery. After almost thirty years of experience in saving patients at impending death situations and having made numerous contributions on the field, the author herein provides a reasoned survival bio-energetic circuit based on a detailed methodological and functional analysis of the Main Channels and the Wondrous Vessels (Qi jing ba mai) participating in it. K-1 Yongquan complementary resuscitation maneuver, systematized since 1987, has been consistently performed in sudden death and cardiac arrest conditions as a final resource in both basic and advanced CPR failure. Experimental analytical studies identify the prevention, control and assessment of treatments set up as well as the determination of their efficiency. Acupuncture K-1 Yongquan Resuscitation Maneuver is presented not only as a complementary CPR rescuer but as a protective aid for both traumatic and vascular acute brain injury. Current indications of KI-1 Yongquan are not limited to actuarial results in cardiac arrest resuscitations, but it functions as a brain protector in both traumatic and vascular brain injury situations should be included. Although many acupuncturists indicate only standard techniques for bio-energetic rehabilitation, it has not been noticed that they insist with greater emphasis in those specific points to stimulate the “Sea of Marrow” (encephalon). Divulgation of K-1 emergency therapeutic possibilities look for its inclusion into Critical Care Protocols, in order to upgrade survival rates in both cardiac arrest and stroke victims. Traditional Chinese Medical balancing effect principle can improve cognitive, intellectual and psycho-motor patterns after even severe brain injuries. Beyond the scientific methodology that supports it the efficiency of the maneuver derives mainly from the sustained increase in survival rates presented in the successive statistics published in renowned scientific journals since its application.
    2019(2):82-83, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254433
    Distinguishing stroke mimics constitutes a considerable challenge for clinicians in emergency department. Here, we illustrate an extremely rare patient presenting with acute onset isolated dysarthria, who finally received diagnosis of tardive phenomenon associated with betahistine. Through the presentation of this case, we point out tardive phenomenon as an alternative differential diagnosis of stroke. Furthermore, this case adds substantial data presenting an interesting manifestation of isolated dysarthria as a tardive phenomenon, occurring due to betahistine usage which is extremely rare in literature.
    2017(4):181, DOI: 10.12980/jad.6.20170406
    Objective: To determine the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of burn wound isolates. Methods: Swabs were taken from burn wound of patients admitted to Ward D2C and Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU) from December 2014 to November 2015. Samples were processed at the Microbiology Laboratory for identification and sensitivity. Bacteria isolated were identified using their morphological characteristics, Gram staining reaction and biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using KirbyBauer disc diffusion method. Questionnaires were also administered to study participants to obtain information on demography, kind of first aid received, antibiotics received prior to culture and sensitivity. Results: A total of 86 patients comprising 45 patients from Ward D2C and 41 from BICU participated in the study. Males were 51(59.3%) and females 35 (40.7%). Age of participants ranged from 0–56+ years. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest pathogen isolated 26(30.2%), followed by Pseudomonas spp. 21(24.4%), Escherichia coli 17(19.8%), Klebsiella spp. 12(14.0%). Coagulase negative Staphylococcus accounted for 2(2.3%). Overall prevalence of infection in the study was 90.7%. Conclusions: Burn wound infection continues to be a major challenge in burn centers. Regular surveillance of commonly identified pathogens in the ward and their antimicrobial susceptibility will guide proper empiric selection of antibiotics for management of burn wounds.
    2018(2):90-92, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.233019
    Acute renal failure is an important acute renal disease. It is the totally acute impairment of the renal function and can be fatal if there is no proper and timely treatment. There are various causes of acute renal failure. The acute renal failure might be due to contact with nephrotoxic substance. The food borne acute renal failure is an important problem that is sporadically seen worldwide. Of several food borne acute renal failure disorders, the fish borne acute renal failure is an important problem. In this specific short review, the authors summarize and discuss the cases on important fish borne acute renal failure disorders.
    2018(3):103-107, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.236823
    Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disturbance usually observed in neurosurgical patients undergoing surgical management of traumatic, as well as, nontraumatic intracranial pathology. The spinal cord trauma is also associated with occasional development of such hyponatremia; it usually occurs within the first two-weeks of the injury. Hyponatremia can lead to alterations of consciousness, convulsions, coma, cardiac arrhythmias and on rare occasions, death. Authors present a practical oriented review of the literature.
    2018(1):45-48, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.228878
    Hemoptysis is a common emergency symptom for pulmonary embolism. It's important to differential diagnosis for this symptom. This article reports a case of pulmonary vein stenosis. The patient was transferred to a number of hospitals for medical treatment, but was misdiagnosed for 7 months. This article aims to improve clinician's ability to differentially diagnose hemoptysis, and to deepen the knowledge of pulmonary vein stenosis.
    2019(5):179-184, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.268405
    Objective: To determine the effect of self-management program on the health status of elderly patients with heart failure. Methods: The present study was a single-blind, randomized clinical trial, and conducted on 90 patients with heart failure of stages II-III at one teaching hospital in eastern Iran in 2017. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups: the intervention group and the control groups, with 45 patients in each group. Self-management programs including awareness and recognition, problem-solving process, diet, exercise, and stress management were carried out. The participants were trained for six weeks and were followed for two months. Data of the health status were collected before, after and eight weeks after intervention by Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Data analysis by chi-square, independent t-test, Fisher, ANOVA with repeated measures was conducted. Results: Patients in both groups were matched in terms of demographic characteristics before the intervention. There was no significant difference in the mean scores of health status between the two groups (P=0.1) before the intervention. However, the second measurement after intervention showed a significant difference in the mean scores between the two groups (P=0.001). Conclusions: Self-management program can improve the different dimensions of health (except in the subscale of sign and symptoms). Therefore, this supportive method can be used to improve the health of patients and manage problems caused by heart failure.
    2019(3):113-117, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.259110
    Objective: To investigate the frequency of integrase genes intI1, intI2 and intI3 of Escherichia coli strains, and their association with resistance to routinely used antibiotics. Methods: A total of 120 Escherichia coli strains were collected from patients with urinary tract infection in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed. The presence of intI1, intI2, andintI3 genes was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Antibiotic susceptibility testing disclosed the highest resistance rate to ampicillin (91.7%) followed by trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (65.8%), and ceftazidime (56.7%). The imipenem susceptibility rate was 91.7%. IntI1 and intI2 were identified in 74 (61.6%) and 8 (6.6%) of Escherichia coli strains, respectively, but intI3 was not found in any isolates. The presence of integrons was significantly associated with resistance to ampicillin, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin antibiotics (P<0.05). Conclusions: The high resistant Escherichia coli isolates harboring class 1 integrons (intI1) were detected in patients with urinary tract infection in our region. Therefore, preventive strategies are necessary to restrict further dissemination of resistant strains.
    2018(2):88-89, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.233018
    Pox is an important infection that can cause the acute illness with dermatological manifestation. Apart from the well-known pox infections, the emerging zoonotic pox infections become interesting new issue in infectious medicine. In this short review, the acute illness which results from new important zoonotic pox infections such as monkeypox, cowpox, raccoon pox and buffalopox is discussed and summarized.
    2018(2):69-73, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.233014
    Objective: To study the effects of large doses of vitamin C and vitamin E on nerve injury, neurotrophic and oxidative stress in patients with acute craniocerebral injury. Methods: Patients with acute craniocerebral trauma who were admitted to the Third People's Hospital of Zigong from April 2014 to December 2016 were selected as the subjects and were randomly divided into two groups. The control group received conventional treatment, and the intervention group received large doses of vitamin C and vitamin E combined with conventional treatment. On the 3th day and 7th day after treatment, peripheral blood was collected and serum was isolated, then the contents of nerve injury index NSE, S100B, NGB, UCH-L1, Tf, Ft and neurotrophic indexes NTF-a, BDNF, NGF and IGF-I were determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and the contents of SOD, GPx, CAT, OH-, O2-, MDA and AOPP were measured by radioactive immunoprecipitation kit. Results: 3th day and 7th day after treatment, the contents of NSE, S100B, NGB, UCH-L1, Tf, Ft, NTF-a, BDNF, NGF, IGF-I, OH-, O2-, MDA and AOPP in the intervention group were all significantly lower than those in the control group. The content of SOD, GPx and CAT in serum in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group. Conclusions: High-dose vitamin C and vitamin E treatment can alleviate nerve injury, oxidative stress response, and improve neurotrophic state in patients with acute craniocerebral injury.
    2019(2):45-52, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.254411
    Objective: To determine and compare the diagnostic efficiency of various biomarkers [C-reactive protein, neutrophil percentage, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLCR), lactate, procalcitonin, blood culture] in the identification of septic patients in emergency department (ED), and to assess the predictive value of combination of markers. Methods: This was a prospective, single centre study conducted in the ED of an urban, tertiary care hospital. We included patients who were admitted to the ED with symptoms of a possible infection. Blood cultures and serum measurement of the biomarkers were collected from 131 patients. Patients were determined to be septic or non-septic, based on the systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and the diagnosis was made at the ED. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and area under curves (AUC) were calculated. Results: A total of 126 patients, 61 with sepsis and 65 without sepsis were eventually included in the study. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio displayed the highest accuracy in diagnosing sepsis (AUC 0.735, 95% CI=0648-0.822, P<0.001). The best combination of markers in predicting sepsis was NLCR and white blood cell (AUC: 0.801, 95% CI=0.724-0.878, P<0.001). Conclusions: The results of this small study showed that NLCR outperforms other markers in diagnosing sepsis in ED. It is readily available, cost efficient, non invasive and independent. It may be insufficient to rely on this single marker to diagnose sepsis, so some other diagnostic utilities should be taken into account as one part of the overall assessment. Our study also showed that combination of NLCR and white blood cell provides the highest diagnostic accuracy. More large scale studies across different population groups will be needed to confirm this finding.
    2019(6):221-232, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.272853
    Legionellosis is the generic term used to describe infections caused by different varieties of Legionella spp., including Legionnaires’ disease (LD), a severe and potentially fatal form of pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a self-limited flu-like illness. Legionellosis is usually acquired through inhalation or aspiration of aerosols containing Legionella spp. These bacteria can cause acute consolidating pneumonia in susceptible patients who are at an advanced age, have underlying debilitating diseases, or are immunodeficient. The main natural reservoir for Legionella is water and this pathogen colonizes many different natural and man-made freshwater environments such as water networks, cooling towers, and water systems in buildings and hospitals. In recent years, various laboratory diagnostic tests for Legionella infections have changed significantly. Although the sequencing method is nowadays considered the fastest and most reliable method for differentiation and detection of different Legionella species, the isolation of these bacteria from clinical specimens is the golden standard for diagnosis of Legionnaires’ disease. Today the urinary antigen test as the most rapid and inexpensive method is routinely used for diagnosis of LD caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The macrolides and fluoroquinolones are still the mainstays for the treatment of Legionella infections. For the prevention of spreading the contaminated water aerosols and controlling Legionella infections, an effective water treatment procedure is necessary. This review describs and summarizes the latest available information about all aspects of Legionella and Legionnaires’ disease.
    2020(2):61-66, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.281319
    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and left ventricular function in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Methods: This study is a descriptive-analytic study and was conducted on patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, who were admitted to the Urmia Hospital in Seyed Alshohada Hospital, and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention from October to March 2018. Demographic, angiographic, echocardiographic data were evaluated based on the patients’ records. All patients were evaluated for 90 min and CRP levels were measured during the first 6 h after the primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Results: A total of 114 patients were studied, among whom 71.9% (82 patients) were male, and their mean age was (57.86±9.57) years old. The mean BMI was (26.1±3.8) kg/m2. Altogether 38.6% (44 patients) had a history of smoking, 17.5% (20 patients) of diabetes, 38.6% (44 patients) of hypertension, 5.3% (6 patients) of hyperlipidemia and 7.0% (8 patient) of coronary artery disease. The results showed a significantly negative correlation between ejection fraction and CRP, left atrial volume and CRP (P<0.05), and a significantly positive correlation between the global longitudinal strain level and CRP. The CRP level was significantly different at various diastolic grades (P=0.001). The level of CRP in patients with grade 2 diastolic dysfunction was higher than grade 1 diastolic dysfunction, while the level of CRP in diastolic grade 1 diastolic dysfunction was higher than the normal function. Conclusions: High CRP levels are associated with ejection fraction, global longitudinal strain loss and left atrial volume.
    2019(6):233-238, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.272854
    Objective: To determine the effect of rehabilitation education on pain, knee stiffness and performance difficulty in patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. Methods: This randomized clinical trial study was performed on 96 patients undergoing knee replacement surgery, who were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the intervention group, with 48 patients in each group. In the intervention group, the patients received educational intervention in four stages (one day before surgery, 24 h and 48 h later, upon discharge from the hospital. In the control group, only the routine of the hospital was performed. Questionnaires were completed before and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results: The mean scores of pain, knee stiffness and performance difficulty were significantly decreased in the intervention group (P=0.01). Compared to the control group, the intervention group had a better outcome of the illness, including pain, knee stiffness and performance difficulty (P=0.001). Conclusion: Rehabilitation education could be a suitable way to improve the surgical outcomes of patients undergoing total knee replacement.
    2018(2):49-68, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.233013
    The I-Ching is one of the most significant texts in the literature of the world and embodies, as no other text does, the Chinese spirit and thought. Its perpetuation along millennia has exercised crucial influence on the development of Chinese philosophy and medicine. The hypotheses of its abstractions compose a “body of assumptions” that hierarchs concepts through a self-regulated process of reciprocal control, which allows the accurate prediction of specific sequences of events according to “fields of similarities”. This peculiarity enables this system of knowledge to make possible predictions based upon the Natural Laws with incredible accuracy, which is effective to process expectations and arguments or to affirm or reject its judgments. A detailed analysis of two consecutive hexagrams (N°23 & N°24) allows the understanding not only of the bases that consolidate the “Reconciliation vessel” but also of the specific determination of its function in the frame of Risk management that can be compared to present ISO standards.
    2018(6):225-233, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.248026
    The large amount of classifications about the concept of death from a medical-legal perspective leads us to think that there are still many aspects to accurately define that precise moment in which the end of our earthly existence is considered as a final and unalterable fact. An answer to such a question may come from a retrospective analysis of those victims of impending-death situations that have been rescued after both basic and advanced cardiac pulmonary resuscitation failure and their consequent medical-legal death declaration. The aim of the following work is to introduce a new phase within forensic thanatology, supported by a complementary resuscitation maneuver based upon millennial traditional Chinese medicine principles together with a detailed analysis of current global agreements on organ transplantation and an avant-garde perspective on actual knowledge about cell death. Those terms will then allow us to achieve a holistic view of said concept, still loosely defined at present. Such an innovative diagnostic-therapeutic resource can in turn enable us to evaluate and face the irreversibility of such extreme situation, analyzing the statistical feasibility of its promising results.
    2019(6):239-244, DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.272855
    Objective: To assess the preparedness for handling injuries by female primary school teachers based on their knowledge, attitude, practice and their willingness to learn first aid. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire on first aid was provided to female primary school teachers, and the knowledge, attitude, practice and their willingness to learn first aid were investigated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Quantitative data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, categorical variables were analyzed by the Chi-square test. The level of significance was set at P<0.05. Results: In total, 464 teachers of different age groups and education responded. The mean knowledge score was low but the mean attitude score was high. Parental consent was sought by one-fourth of the teachers, and 25.6% of teachers documented the health status of children. Most of the teachers desired to have a first aider, and they were keen on training (62.3%) and educating children (88.1%) on first aid. Knowledge scores were significantly impacted by age (P<0.05) and experience (P<0.01), while specialization impacted mean practice scores (P<0.001). Teachers’ qualification (P<0.05), first action to be taken at the accident site (P<0.05), and frequency of training (P<0.05), were significantly associated with the need of a first aider. Conclusions: Based on the paucity of awareness and expertise, on priority basis, it is important to strengthen teachers’ skills. Child safety is an important public health issue and can be improved by educating and training teachers.

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